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By  the  late  LAFCADIO  HEARN 

Lecturer  on  English  Literature  in  the  Imperial 
University,  Tokyo. 

Crown  8vo.    Cloth  Gilt.     Each  Ss.  net. 

In  Ghostly  Japan.    9  Illustrations. 

Exotics  and  Retrospectives.    19  Illustrations. 

Shadowing*.     5  Plates. 

A  Japanese  Miscellany.    Illustrated. 

Kwaldan :  Stories  and  Studies  of  Strange  Things. 

With  two  Japanese  Illustrations,  and  the  text 

rubricated  throughout. 
Out  of  the  East :   Reveries  and  Studies  in  New 


Stray   Leaves   from    Strange   Literature: 

Stories  reconstructed  from  the  Anvari-soheili, 
Mahabharata,  Gulistan,  etc. 

Gleanings  In  Buddha-Fields.    Studies  of  Hand 
and  Soul  in  the  Far  East. 

2  vols.    Crown  8vo.     15s.  net. 
Glimpses  of  Unfamiliar  Japan. 

By  Percival  Lowell 

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top.    5s.  net. 

Kegan  Paul,  Trench,  Trtibner  &  Co.,  Ltd. 








Broadway  House,  Carter  Lane,  E.C. 









OF  THE  SOGA  FAMILY  .  .  .  -      .      .  .5 


JECTION of  Korea 5 

CHAPTER  I. — Foundation  of  the  Japanese  Empire. 

The  first  Emperor 7 

CHAPTER  II.— Relations  with  Korea.   Struggles  with 

the  native  races.     State  of  civilization  .         .11 

CHAPTER  III.— The  subjection  of  Korea       .         .     16 



THE    FALL   OF   THE   SOGA    FAMILY  .  .  -19 

CHAPTER  IV.— The  introduction  of  Chinese  cul- 
ture into  Japan.  Economic  progress  of  the 
nation        .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .21 

CHAPTER  V.— The  rebellion  of  Korea   .         .         .24 




CHAPTER  VI.— The   beginnings   of   Buddhism   in 

Japan        . 26 

CHAPTER  VII.— The  regency  of  the  Crown  Prince 
Shokotu.  Direct  Intercourse  with  China.  Further 
Introduction  of  Chinese  culture  and  of  Buddhism     30 

CHAPTER  VIII.— The  fall  of  the  Soga  Family        .     33 


FROM     THE    TAIKA    REFORMS    TO    THE     FALL    OF    THE 




THE  CAPITAL,  KIOTO     .  .  .  .  .  -37 

CHAPTER  I.— The  Taika  reforms  .         .         .         .39 
CHAPTER  II.— The    Ainu    insurrection.      End   of 

Japanese  rule  in  Korea.     Continuation  of  reform     41 
CHAPTER  III.— Reforms  of  the  first  Taiho  year      .     44 
CHAPTER  IV.— The  Seven  Courts  of  Nara.    Buddh- 
ism, Art  and  Learning        .         .         .         .         -47 
CHAPTER  V.— Foundation  of  the  town  of  Kioto. 
The  great  period  of  learning   and  further  pro- 
gress of  Buddhism 51 


THE  AGE  OF  THE  FUJIWARA  .  .  .  .  -55 

CHAPTER    VI.— The     increasing     power     of    the 

Fujiwara 57 

CHAPTER  VII.— Futile  attempts  to  destroy  the 
power  of  the  Fujiwara.  Art  and  learning  of  the 
period 59 



CHAPTER    VIII.— The   beginnings   of  the   feudal 

system 61 

CHAPTER  IX.— The  Fujiwara  family  as  guardians 
of  the  state.  Japanese  influence  on  Chinese 
civilization .64 


THE  TAIRA  AND  MINAMOTO  .  .  .  .  .69 

CHAPTER  X. — Abolition  of  government  by  guardians 
of  the    Fujiwara    Family,    and    Emperors    who 
had  abdicated.      Growing  power  of  the  Taira  and 
Minamoto 71 

CHAPTER  XI.— Strife     in     the    Imperial    Family. 

Supremacy  of  the  Taira  and  Minamoto      .         -74 

CHAPTER  XII.— Hostility  between  the  Taira  and 

Minamoto 76 

CHAPTER  XIII.— Supremacy  and  fall  of  the  Taira  .     78 




THE  KAMAKURA  SHOGUNATE  .....       83 

CHAPTER  I. — Foundation  of  the  Kamakura  Shogun- 
ate  by  the  Minamoto  family.  Their  supremacy 
and  their  fall  through  the  Hojo  family         .         .85 

CHAPTER  II.— Establishment  of  the  supremacy 
of  the  Hojo  Family.  Faineant  Shoguns  and 
Skikken «         .89 

CHAPTER  III.— Repulse  of  Mongolian  attempts  at 

invasion 91 

viii.  CONTENTS 


CHAPTER  IV.— Art,  learning  and   religion   at   the 

time  of  the  Kamakura  Shogunate        .         .         -93 

CHAPTER    V.~ Division     of    the     Imperial    line. 

Abolition  of  the  Shogunate         .         .         .         .96 




CHAPTER  VI.— Reign  and  fall  of  Go-Daigo-Tenno  101 
CHAPTER  VII.— Dynasties  of  the  North  and  South  104 


THE   MUROMACHI    OR    ASHIKAGA   SHOGUNATE         .  .    1 07 

CHAPTER  VIIL— The  Muromachi  Shogunate  .  109 
CHAPTER  IX.— The   disorders  of  the  Onin   years 

and  the  struggle  for  the  supremacy  of  Kamakura  112 
CHAPTER  X.— The    age    of    Higashiyama.       Art, 

literature  and  learning 116 

CHAPTER  XL— The  Heroic  Age,  (1478-1573)        .  118 

CHAPTER  XII.— Relations  with  foreign  lands  .  124 


THE  ODA  AND  TOYOTOMI  FAMILIES  (1573-1598)     .  .    12  7 

CHAPTER  XIII.— Oda  Nobunaga  .  .  .  .129 
CHAPTER  XIV.— The  conquest  and  union  of  the 

whole  Empire  by  Toyotomi-Hideyoshi  .  -133 
CHAPTER  XV.— Toyotomi-Hideyoshi's   foreign 

enterprises 137 

CHAPTER  XVI.— The  decisive  battle  between  the 

Toyotomi  and  Tokugawa  families.      Victory  of 

the  Tokugawa  family 140 





CHAPTER  XVII.— Establishment  of  the  Tokugawa 

Shogunate .         .   145 

CHAPTER  XVIII.— Bushido  .         .         .         .150 

CHAPTER  XIX.— Relations  with   foreign  countries  156 

CHAPTER  XX.— Spread  and  suppression  of  Chris- 
tianity      .         .         .         .         .         .         .         .161 

CHAPTER  XXL— The  Reigns  of  Ieyasu's  Successors. 
Flourishing  state  of  art  and  learning.  Beginning 
of  economic  progress  .         .         .         .         .165 

CHAPTER  XXII.— The  most  flourishing  period  of 

the  Tokugawa  Shogunate    .         .         .         .         .169 

CHAPTER   XXIIL— End   of    the   great  period   of 

prosperity  of  the  Tokugawa  Shogunate         .         .172 

CHAPTER  XXIV.— The  awakening  of  a  public 
opinion.  Intellectual  tendencies  towards  the 
revival  of  the  Imperial  power  and  the  opening 
of  the  country  to  Europeans        .         .         .         .174 

CHAPTER  XXV.— Conclusion  of  the  first  com- 
mercial treaty     .         .         .         .         .         .         .178 

CHAPTER  XXVI.— Fall  of  the  Shogunate.  Restora- 
tion of  the  Imperial  power  .         .         .         .   1 84 


MEIJI 191 

CHAPTER  I.— Beginning  of  the  Meiji  age  .  .  193 
CHAPTER  II. — Reaction   against   the   new   system 

of  government   .......  207 

CHAPTER    III.— Introduction    of    constitutional 

government        .         .         .         .         .         .         .213 



CHAPTER  IV.— Relations  of  Japan  with  Russia  and 

with  Korea 218 

CHAPTER  V.— The  Chino-Japanese  war  .         .222 

CHAPTER   VI.— The   revision   of   the   commercial 

treaties 230* 

CHAPTER  VII.— The  Chinese  troubles  .         .         .232 

CHAPTER  VIII.— The  Russo-Japanese  War    .         .  236 


i.  Japanese  Embassy  Ship 

2.  Ainu  Family 

3.  Ainu 

4.  The  Temple  of  Izumo-no-Oyashiro 

5.  Suguwara  Michizane,  Chancellor 

of  the  Right        .... 

6.  Murasaki-Shikibu  .... 

7.  Taira  Shigemori    .... 

8.  Battle    of    the    Minamoto     and 

9.  Minamoto  Yoritomo 

10.  Mongolian     Ship     Attacked     by 


11.  Francesco  Xavier,  Founder  of  the 

Jesuit  Settlements  in  Japan 

12.  Oda     Nobunaga     and     his     Son 


13.  toyotomi-hldeyoshi 

14.  TOKUGAWA    lEYASU    .... 

15.  Fortress    in    Nagoga   (Tokugawa 

Period) ,,146 

1 6.  Imperial  Official  (Kuge)  in  Court 

Dress ,,150 



To  face  page  1 



























17.  Samurai    and   his    Servant — The 

Stirrup  Cup  .        . 

18.  Samurai  in  Ceremonial  Dress 

19.  Knights  Exercising 

20.  Korean  Embassy    . 

21.  Jesuits  in  Japan    . 
2  2.  tokugawa  yoshimune    . 
23.  Samurai    at    the    End    of    the 

Tokugawa  Period 

To  face  page  152 



Ainu  Family 

Face  p.  1] 

A    History   of  Japan 



The  Japanese  are  not  indigenous  to  their  land.  They 
first  came  to  their  present  home  at  the  end  of  the 
bronze  or  the  beginning  of  the  iron  age. 

Philological  research  decisively  proves  that  the 
people  who  dwelt  in  the  islands  of  Japan  before  the 
Japanese  were  the  Ainus.  Some  attribute  a 
Mongolian,  others,  especially  European  scholars  like 
Balz  and  Chamberlain,  a  Caucasian  origin  to  the 
Ainus.  At  the  present  time  about  17,000  Ainus  live 
on  the  island  of  Ezo.  They  form  a  contrast  to  the 
Japanese,  for  they  are  powerfully  built,  exceedingly 
hairy,  and  on  a  lower  level  of  civilization.  It  is  a 
question  whether  the  numerous  remains  of  the  stone 
age  found  in  almost  every  part  of  the  Japanese  islands 
are  to  be  attributed  to  the  ancestors  of  these  Ainus, 
or  to  a  people  who  inhabited  the  land  prior  to  the 
Ainus.  Most  scholars,  especially  Professor  Koganei, 
ascribe  them  to  the  Ainus      The  opposite  view,  how- 


ever,  based  on  important  grounds,  is  held  by  Professor 
Tsuboi  of  Tokio.  He  thinks  that  these  ancient 
remains  point  to  a  people  before  the  Ainus,  who  were 
related  to  the  Eskimos  and  identical  with  the 
Korpogurus,1  the  race  of  dwarfs  that  according  to  the 
Ainu  legends  dwelt  in  the  land  before  them. 

The  origin  of  the  Japanese  is  also  much  disputed. 
It  is  certain  that  a  race  of  people  related  to  the 
Koreans  and  Manchurians,  who  had  progressed  beyond 
the  stone  age,  and  used  weapons  made  of  metal, 
gradually  invaded  Japan  from  the  continent  through 
Korea.  It  is  possible  that  these  invaders  had  some 
Ainu  blood  in  them.  They  clearly  possessed  marked 
Malay  elements.  Comparative  philology  divides  the 
different  Mongolian  nations  into  two  groups:  those 
whose  language  is  analytic,  and  those  whose  language 
is  synthetic.  The  Japanese  with  the  Koreans, 
Manchurians,  Finns  and  Turks  belong  to  the  latter 
group.  In  any  case  they  stand  nearer  it  than  the 
Chinese  and  Tibetans,  whose  language  is  analytic. 

The  two  most  important  sources  of  information  for 
the  ancient  times  of  Japanese  history  are  the  Kojiki,  i.e. 
chronicle  of  antiquity,  and  the  Nihonshoki  (abbrevi- 
ated to  Nihongi)  i.e.  written  annals  of  Japan.  The 
Kojiki  contains  merely  the  genealogy  of  the  imperial 
family,  without  any  chronological  information.  The 
Nihongi  forms  a  supplement  to  the  Kojiki;  it  is 
arranged  in  the  form  of  .annals  after  the  Chinese 
model.     The  handwriting  of  the  Kojiki  is  Japanese, 

1  Literally  :  people  under  the  Indian  plantain. 



while  that  of  the  Nihongi  is  Chinese.  The  former 
was  written  down  in  712  A.D.,  the  latter  in  720  A.D., 
and  both  are  by  the  same  author.  Even  for  a  later 
time,  we  have  only  contemporary  information  to  go 
on.  For  since  the  author,  with  the  exception  of 
scattered  Chinese  and  Korean  sources  which  he  used 
for  the  Nihongi,  found  his  material  for  the  earlier 
time  solely  in  tradition,  his  information  about  the 
very  earliest  period  is  most  untrustworthy.  Both 
works,  however,  have  a  semi-official  character ;  they 
were  composed  at  the  instigation  of  the  Emperor,  and 
thus  caused  the  author  purposely  to  falsify  and 
invent  in  favour  of  the  imperial  dynasty. 

In  the  opinion  of  Professor  Yonekichi  Miyake 
authentic  history  begins  with  Suiko-Tenno  (33rd 
Emperor  592  B.C. — 628  B.C.)  and  the  period  of  the 
26th  Emperor  Keitai-Tenno  (507  B.C. — 531  B.C.)  stands 
out  more  clearly  from  the  earlier  legendary  times,  and 
may  be  compared  with  the  dawn.  It  is  not 
possible  to  make  any  sharp  division  between  history 
and  legend  in  those  ancient  times.  Only  the  follow- 
ing facts  can  with  certainty  be  regarded  as  historical 
for  those  early  years  :  the  unity  of  the  imperial  dynasty 
from  the  beginning  of  the  Japanese  state;  wars 
with  the  savage  races  already  settled  in  the  islands ; 
wars  with  the  Koreans  and  the  temporary  over- 
throw of  their  country,  and  as  a  result,  the  introduction 
of  Chinese  culture  and  civilization.  But  the  ancient 
traditions  of  the  early  period  are  of  sufficient  interest 
for  some  account  of  them  to  be  given  here. 


THE    FALL    OF    THE    SOGA    FAMILY. 



The  Temple  of  Izumo-no-oyashiro 

Face  p.  7] 



ACCORDING  to  the  legend,  the  Japanese  islands  were 
created  by  the  god  Izanagi-no-Mikoto  and  his  wife 
Izanami-no-Mikoto.  Their  daughter,  Amaterasu- 
Omikami,  l  the  sun  goddess,  was  charitable,  virtuous 
and  clever ;  she  taught  men  to  cultivate  the  earth,  to 
obtain  silk  and  weave  it  in  the  loom.  Her  brother, 
Susa-noo-no-Mikoto,  in  contrast  to  her,  was  cruel  and 
fierce.  Therefore  he  was  banished  from  Heaven  to 
Izumo,  a  province  on  the  island  of  Honto.2  He  built 
a  house  there,  and  married  a  beautiful  girl  who  bore 
him  a  son  named  Okuninushi-no-Mikoto.  He  was 
kind,  clever  and  brave  ;  he  defeated  all  the  frontier 
tribes  and  encouraged  agriculture.  When  Amaterasu- 
Omikami  sent  an  ambassador  to  demand  the  whole 
of  his  kingdom,  he  obeyed,  and  at  once  delivered  up 
the  land.  He  withdrew  to  the  village  of  Kizuki  in 
the  province  of  Izumo  and  dwelt  there  till  the  end 

1  i.e.    the  divinity  that  shines  down  from  Heaven. 
1  The  principal  island  of  Japan. 


of  his  days.  There  is  a  large  temple,  Izumo-no- 
oyashiro,  in  which  he  is  still  worshipped  as  a  god. 

Amaterasu-Omikami,  so  the  Nihongi  relates,  caused 
her  grandson,  Ninigi-no-Mikoto,  to  come  down  from 
heaven  and  spoke  to  him  in  these  words :  "  Go  to 
Japan  where  the  meadows  are  green  and  fertile. 
Broad  Japan  shall  be  ruled  by  our  descendants  to 
all  eternity,  and  our  posterity  shall  endure  forever 
like  heaven  and  earth."  She  gave  him  Yada-no- 
Kagami,  a  mirror,  Yasakani-no-Magatema,  a  precious 
stone,  and  Murakumo-no-Tsurugi,  a  sword  with  the 
words :  "  These  insignia  shall  be  symbols  of  the 
Imperial  power,  and  the  worthy  palladia  of  our 
Empire.  The  mirror,  especially,  shall  remind  you 
of  me." 

Ninigi-no-Mikoto  took  the  insignia  and  accom- 
panied by  many  gods  came  down  from  Heaven  to 
Hiuga,  a  province  on  the  island  of  Kiusiu,  and  ruled 
there.  After  Ninigi-no-Mikoto  came  in  succession : 
his  son  Hikohohodemi-no-Mikoto,  his  grandson 
Ugayafukiaezu-no-Mikoto  and  his  great-grandson 
Jimmu-Tenna,1  Jimmu-Tenno  is  the  actual  founder 
of  the  Japanese  Empire. 

The  Emperor  Jimmu  lived  in  the  province  of 
Hiuga  on  the  island  of  Kiusiu.  One  day  he 
gathered  together  his  family  and  his  faithful  adherents 
and  said  to  them  :     *  Many  traitors  and  evil-doers  live 

^enno  is  a  Chinese  word,  Ten=heaven,  0=king;  other 
epithets  for  the  Japanese  Emperor  are  e.g.  Tenshi=son  of 
heaven  and  Mikado  (Mi=sublime,  Kado    gate,  portal). 


in  the  east,  and  they  oppress,  rob,  and  plunder  our 
good  people.  Therefore  we  must  conquer  them,  and 
protect  the  good  people."  And  he  set  out  to  do 
so  with  a  powerful  army  and  with  his  whole  family. 
They  went  through  the  straits  of  Hayasui,  and  the 
inland  sea  of  Seto  to  Naniwa '  and  landed  there,  in 
order  to  pursue  their  march  into  the  province  of 
Yamato,  which  Nagasunehiko,  the  leader  of  the 
rebellion,  was  plundering.  When  Nagasunehiko 
heard  of  the  approach  of  Jimmu-Tenno,  he  marched 
out  to  meet  him,  and  a  battle  ensued  on  the  mountain 
of  Ikoma.  In  spite  of  great  courage,  the  imperial 
army  was  defeated  by  the  enemy. 

The  Emperor's  eldest  brother  was  mortally 
wounded  and  soon  died.  Jimmu-Tenno  therefore 
abandoned  the  plan  of  reaching  Yamato  by  land, 
marched  back  to  Naniwa,  and  took  ship  to  Kii,  the 
nearest  province  on  the  sea  coast  to  Yamato. 
He  landed  there  on  the  shores  of  Kuma-no-Ura. 
Michinoomi-no-Mikoto,  a  native  of  the  place  who 
was  a  faithful  servant  of  the  Emperor,  showed  him 
the  way  across  the  mountains  thought  to  be  im- 
passable. The  imperial  army  conquered  and 
brought  into  subjection  all  the  rebels  met  on  the 
way.  When  they  reached  Yamato,  Nagasunehiko 
was  murdered  by  his  brother-in-law,  Nigihayahi-no- 
Mikoto,  a  relative  of  the  Emperor,  who  then  put 
himself  at  the  head  of  the  army,  and  delivered  it  and 
the  province   of  Yamato   to   the   Emperor  Jimmu. 

^ow  Osaka. 


The  neighbouring  people  of  Tsuchikumo1  were  also 
soon  brought  into  subjection. 

After  the  defeat  of  his  enemies,  Jimmu-Tenno  built 
a  large  palace  at  the  foot  of  the  mountain  Unebi,  and 
ascended  the  throne,  nth  February,  660  B.C. 

Such  is  the  legendary  account  of  the  origin  of  the 
Imperial  dynasty,  and  the  foundation  of  the  Japanese 
Empire  by  Jimmu-Tenno.  Jimmu's  personality  is 
equally  legendary.  But  it  is  certain  that  from  the 
earliest  times  about  which  we  possess  any  historical 
information  until  the  present  day,  only  one  dynasty 
has  ruled  over  Japan,  and  that  the  Japanese  Imperial 
family3  is  regarded  as  the  oldest  of  all  reigning 

Japanese  chronology  begins  with  nth  February,  660 
B.C.,3  the  day  of  Jimmu-Tenno's  accession. 

1  Tsuchi— earth,  Kumo  Spider.  They  were  so  named 
because  they  lived  in  caves. 

9  Through  the  great  importance  attached  to  the  family  in 
Japan,  family  tradition  plays  a  prominent  part.  An  interrup- 
tion of  the  Imperial  dynasty  would  have  been  an  event  of 
such  importance  that  not  even  the  vaguest  tradition  could 
have  ignored  it. 

8  The  late  Professor  Naka  believes  that  this  date  of  the 
Nihongi  should  be  put  back  about  660  years. 



Our  sources  give  no  information  for  the  next  560 
years  worthy  of  mention  here.  We  find  nothing  of 
interest  until  the  reign  of  the  10th  Emperor  Sujin 
(97-30  B.C.). 

Under  Sujin-Tenno  the  Japanese  government 
entered  into  relations  with  Korea.  The  state  of 
Karak  (Mimana)1  in  the  south-east  of  the  peninsula, 
so  the  narrative  runs,  was  oppressed  by  the  Korean 
state  Sil-la  (Shiraki),  and  asked  help  of  Sujin-Tenno. 
In  33  B.C.  he  sent  a  small  army  to  its  aid  under  Shiono- 
ritsuhiko-no-Mikoto  who  was  victorious  over  Sil-la. 
The  army  remained  in  Karak,  and  Japan  soon 
regarded  it  as  a  right  to  keep  an  army  there 
permanently,  and  to  exercise  a  certain  authority  over 
the  state. 

Besides,  this  successful  enterprise  in  a  foreign 
land,  the  old  chroniclers  tell  of  fierce  battles  fought  in 

1  The  Korean  states  are  here  given  their  Korean  names  : 
the  Japanese  names  are  given  in  brackets. 


their  own  land  against  the  native  races  which  had  not 
been  entirely  subdued. 

In  the  southern  part  of  the  island  of  Kiusiu  in  the 
province  of  Osumi,  dwelt  a  race  called  Kumaso  on 
account  of  its  barbarity.  In  the  time  of  the  12th 
Emperor  Keiko-Tenno  (71-130  A.D.)  that  people 
rebelled  against  the  Emperor.  Keiko-Tenno  at  first 
put  down  the  rebellion.  But  it  broke  out  again,  and 
he  sent  his  son,  Prince  Yamatota-keru-no-Mikoto  to 
quell  it.  He  was  then  only  15  years  old.  When  he 
arrived  in  the  province  of  Osumi  in  order  to  do  battle 
with  the  insubordinate  people,  their  chief  was 
arranging  a  ceremony  for  consecrating  a  new  palace. 
Yamatotakeru-no-Mikoto  put  on  girl's  dress,  and 
mingling  with  the  girls,  entered  the  hall  where  the 
festival  was  held.  He  assisted  in  pouring  out  the 
wine,  and  was  taken  for  a  beautiful  waiting-maid. 
When  the  chief  was  sunk  in  sleep,  the  Prince  drew 
out  the  sword  that  he  had  concealed  under  his 
garments,  and  stabbed  him  in  the  back  with  the  words  : 
"  Know,  traitor,  that  I  am  the  son  of  Keik5-Tennd, 
and  am  come  here  to  overthrow  you."  The  chief 
replied  :  "  I  am  the  bravest  man  of  the  west  country, 
but  you  are  stronger  than  I  am,  spare  me,  and  I  will 
bestow  on  you  the  title  of  honour,  Yamatotakeru-no- 
Mikoto."1  But  the  prince  preferred  to  kill  him,  and 
ever  after,  peace  reigned  in  the  land. 

Later  the  east  was  disturbed  by  the  Ainus.3    The 

1  i.e.  the  bravest  man  in  Japan. 
a  Or  Ezo. 


rising  spread  as  far  as  the  plain  of  KantS.  KeikS- 
Tenno  again  ordered  his  son  Yamatotakeru-no- 
Mikoto  to  put  it  down.  First  the  prince  went  to  the 
temple  in  the  province  of  Ise  in  order  to  pray  and  to 
take  with  him  for  his  protection  the  sword  belonging 
to  the  imperial  insignia.  Then  he  marched  along 
the  shore  of  the  Eastern  Sea  to  Suruga  where  a  part 
of  the  rebels  opposed  him.  As  the  prince  came  nearer, 
the  enemy  set  fire  to  the  thick  prairie  grass,  in  order 
to  destroy  his  army.  But  when  the  prince  was 
surrounded  by  the  flames,  he  mowed  the  grass  near 
him  with  his  sword,1  and  immediately  a  high  wind 
sprang  up  which  blew  towards  the  rebels  so  that  they 
perished  in  the  flames.  The  prince  then  marched  to 
the  nearest  port  in  the  province  of  Sagami,  and  with 
his  army  embarked  for  the  opposite  province  of  Kazusa. 
On  the  way  a  storm  arose  and  his  ship  was  in  danger 
of  sinking.  His  wife,  the  princess  Tachibanahime, 
in  great  fear,  prayed  to  the  god  of  the  sea  to  still  the 
waves.  But  the  god  caused  her  to  sink  into  the 
water  and  be  drowned  because  she  had  doubted  his 
goodness.  Then  the  sea  became  calm,  and  the  army 
were  able  to  land  on  the  shore  of  Kazusa.  Thence  it 
continued  its  march  to  Mutsu,  the  chief  town  of  the 
Ainus.  On  its  arrival,  the  rebels  submitted  to  the 
victorious  general  who  was  now  able  to  set  out  on  his 
return.  He  reached  the  province  of  Omi  by  way  of 
Kai,  Shinano  and  Owari.     There  the  mountains  were 

1  From  that   time  the   sword   was    named   Kusanagi,   i,e, 


infested  by  robbers,  and  their  capture  was  the 
prince's  last  deed.  For  immediately  afterwards  he 
was  attacked  by  an  illness  to  which  he  shortly  suc- 
cumbed in  the  province  of  Ise.  A  temple  was  built 
in  his  honour  in  the  province  of  Owari,  which  is 
now  called  Atsuta.  The  sword  he  had  used  in  his 
last  campaign  was  preserved  there. 

But  these  deeds  of  Keiko-Tenno  and  Prince 
Yamatotakeru-no-Mikoto  belong  rather  to  legend 
than  to  authentic  history.  The  one  historical  fact 
that  stands  out  is  that  for  a  long  period  after  the 
foundation  of  their  empire  by  the  imperial  dynasty, 
the  Japanese  had  to  fight  with  savage  tribes  who  con- 
tinually made  fresh  attempts  to  regain  the  liberty 
of  which  they  had  been  deprived. 

Our  sources  record  one  reform  of  the  nth 
Emperor,  Suinin  (29  B.C.  to  70  A.D.)  that  has  interest 
for  the  history  of  civilization.  Until  his  reign  it  was 
the  custom  when  a  ruler  died  to  bury  alive  with  him 
a  number  of  his  servants,  so  that  they  might  wait  on 
him  in  the  world  beyond  the  grave.  Suinin -Tenno 
made  a  strict  law  forbidding  the  custom  for  ever ; 
for  the  future,  instead  of  living  men,  clay  figures 
of  men,  birds  and  horses  were  to  be  placed  in  the 

Numerous  excavations  prove  that  the  custom 
assigned  by  tradition  to  Suinin-Tenno  was  known  to 
antiquity.  It  was  usual  also  to  place  in  the  grave 
with  the  dead  man  the  utensils  he  used  daily,  his 
jewels  and  his  arms.  Those  objects  form  valuable 
historical  documents  for  us,  since  we  learn  from  them 


the  conditions  of  civilization  of  the  time.  Men  wore 
coats  with  tight  sleeves  and  breeches,  similar  to 
European  dress.1  The  materials  were  hemp  or 
leather.  The  neck,  chest,  hands  and  loins  were 
adorned  with  precious  stones  such  as  agates.  The 
men  bound  up  their  hair  like  women.  Great  care  was 
bestowed  on  the  manufacture  of  arms ;  they  are 
of  excellent  workmanship  ;  iron  swords,  spears,  arrow 
points  and  helmets  have  been  found.  The  bows  were 
made  of  wood,  but  have  not  been  preserved.  Great 
progress  had  already  been  made  in  the  manufacture 
of  pottery. 

1  These  clothes  were  supplanted  by  Chinese  dress,  which 
later  gave  way  again  to  Japanese  fashions. 



ACCORDING  to  the  Nihongi  chronicle  the  Kumaso 
rose  in  rebellion  again  in  the  time  of  Chuai-Tenno, 
(192-200  A.D.).  The  Emperor,  accompanied  by  his 
wife,  Jingu-Kog5,  marched  out  to  subdue  them.  The 
Empress  was  convinced  that  the  Kumaso  were 
relying  on  the  aid  of  the  state  of  Sil-la  in  Korea,  and 
wished  to  conquer  that  state  first,  for  if  it  was  once 
subdued,  the  Kumaso  would  soon  cease  to  offer 
resistance.  But  the  Emperor  refused  to  follow  her 
advice,  and  preferred  to  punish  the  rebellious  people 
first.  He  could,  however,  do  nothing  against  them  ; 
he  was  wounded  in  the  battle  and  died  soon  after. 
The  Empress  concealed  his  death,  and  took  counsel 
with  the  minister,  Takeuchi-no-Sukune,  and  they 
determined  to  attack  Sil-la. 

At  that  time  the  peninsula  of  Korea  consisted  of 
four  independent  states,  namely,  Sil-la  (Shiraki)  in  the 
south-east,  Pak-je  (Kudara)  in  the  south-west,  Ko-gu- 
ryu  (Koma)  in  the  north,  and  Karak  (Mimana)  situated 
between  Pak-je  and  Sil-la.  The  earliest  formation  of 
states  in  Korea  preceded  the  rise  of  the  Japanese 
Empire.      It  goes  back  to  the  Chinese  prince  Ki-ja 


who  founded  the  state  of  Chosun  (Chosen)  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  peninsula  in  11 20  with  the 
capital  Phyong-Yang  (Heijo).  There  soon  arose  three 
states  in  the  southern  portion  of  the  peninsula,  namely 
Ma-han  (Bakan),  Chin-han  (Shinkan)  and  Phon-han 
(Benkan).  The  three  states  together  were  called  the 
three  Han  (Kan). 

Chin-han  was  conquered  in  57  B.C.  by  the  province 
named  Sil-la  and  was  thenceforward  called  Sil-la. 
Ma-han  was  conquered  by  Pak-je  (18  B.C.)  and 
received  its  name  from  that  province,  and  in  the  same 
way  Chosun  was  subdued  by  Ko-gu-ryu  (37  B.C.)  and 
was  then  called  after  that  province.  The  three  states 
together  are  called  the  Postsan-han  (Kan).  In  the 
same  way  Pyon-chin  was  conquered  by  Karak,  the 
smallest  of  the  states.  It  is  related  that  Karak  put 
itself  under  the  authority  of  Japan  in  the  time  of 

The  Empress  Jingu-Kogo  assumed  man's  attire 
and  with  a  large  army  went  across  the  Genkai  Sea 
and  the  Japanese  Sea  to  Sil-la.  The  king  of  that 
state  was  taken  by  surprise  and  surrendered  after  a 
little  fighting.  He  offered  eighty  ships  filled  with  gold, 
silver  and  silk  as  tribute,  and  promised  :  "  I  will  send 
the  same  number  of  ships  laden  with  treasure  every 
year  as  tribute.  As  long  as  the  sun  rises  in  the  east 
and  sets  in  the  west,  as  long  as  the  river  Yalu  does 
not  flow  up  to  the  mountains  from  the  sea,  I  will  not 
omit  to  pay  the  tribute."  And  so  the  Empress 
returned  to  Japan  with  great  booty.  When  she 
landed  in  the  province  of  Tsukushi,  which  is  situated 


in  the  north  of  the  island  of  Kiusiu,  she  bore  a  son, 
the  future  Ojin-Tenno  (200  A.D.)  Very  soon  after- 
wards the  King  of  Pak-je  submitted  and  paid  tribute 
and  the  King  of  Ko-gu-ryu  followed  suit. 

This  account  in  the  Nihongi  of  the  campaign  of 
the  Empress  Jingii-Kogo  in  Korea  must  certainly  be 
regarded  as  legendary.  But  it  is  stated  in  Korean 
sources  that  there  were  at  that  time  many  fierce 
battles  between  Japanese  and  Koreans  in  which 
the  Japanese  gained  the  upper  hand,  and  became 
rulers  of  the  peninsula.  We  can  therefore  draw 
conclusions  as  to  the  power  of  the  Japanese  Empire 
and  its  dynasty  at  that  time. 

Japan  was  able  to  maintain  its  authority  over 
Korea  amid  many  fierce  and  not  always  successful 
battles,  at  least  in  some  degree,  until  668  A.D. 

The  conquest  of  Korea  was  a  very  important  event 
for  the  Japanese  people.  Through  Korea  Japan 
came  into  relations  with  the  highly  developed 
civilization  of  China,  a  circumstance  that  had  im- 
portant influence  in  the  evolution  of  Japanese 


TO    THE    FALL    OF    THE    SOGA    FAMILY. 



Chinese    writing    and    literature    penetrated     into 
Japan  from  Korea. 

According  to  the  Nihongi  chronicle,  the  scholars 
Achiki  and  Wani  came  from  PaT?Je7~  Wani  brought 
with  him  the  Bible  of  Confucius,  called  Rongo,  and 
the  poem  Senjimon,  i.e.,  the  poem  of  a  thousand 
letters,  and  gave  it  to  Ojin-Tenno  (201-310  A.D.). 
He  received  the  two  men  kindly  and  bade  them 
instruct  the  crown  prince,  Uji-no-Wakairatsuko,  in 
Chinese  literature.  Later,  a  Chinaman  named  Achi- 
no-mi,  came  to  Japan  with  many  of  his  countrymen, 
and  settled  in  the  provinces  of  Kawachi  and  Yamato. 
These  Chinese  and  Koreans  and  their  descendants  for 
many  generations  were  clerks  and  secretaries  in 
the  service  of  the  Japanese  government.  The 
economic  life  of  Japan  made  great  progress  under 
Chinese  influence.  Chinese  architecture  was  adopted 
from  Korea,  and  also  the  production  of  Saki  from 
rice.  Chinese  weavers  and  tailors  soon  came  into  the 
land  and  taught  their  industries  to  the  Japanese. 


Chinese  influence  doubtless  improved  the  condition 
of  the  Japanese  people  and  made  for  progress  in  their 
economic  life.  Tradition  points  at  this  period  to  the 
popular  and  happy  reigns  of  a  Nintoku-Tenno  and 

The  Nihongi  relates  that  the  Emperor  Ojin  pre- 
ferred his  youngest  son,  Vji-no-Wakairatsuko  to  all 
his  other  children  and  made  him  crown  prince  in- 
stead of  his  eldest  son,  Nintoku.  When  on  the  death 
of  his  father,  VVakairatsuko  prepared  to  ascend  the 
throne  of  his  ancestors,  his  elder  brother  opposed  him 
and  won  the  support  of  the  people.  Wakairatsuko 
who  soon  saw  that  he  would  not  be  able  to  establish 
his  claim,  committed  suicide.  Filled  with  grief  for 
his  brother's  fate,  Nintoku-Tenn5  ascended  the  throne 
of  his  fathers  and  reigned  with  wisdom  and  mercy 
(313-399  A.D.).  He  restored  the  palace  at  Naniwa. 
When  he  became  acquainted  with  the  poverty  of  the 
people,  he  had  pity  on  them  and  exempted  them 
from  the  payment  of  taxes  for  three  years.  And  so 
it  happened  that  the  Emperor  became  poor  and  could 
not  repair  the  walls  and  roof  of  his  palace.  But  he 
thought  only  of  the  welfare  of  his  subjects,  and  when 
the  Empress  complained  of  their  poverty,  replied  :  "  I 
feel  joy  and  sorrow  with  my  people,  if  they  become 
richer  then  also  shall  I  become  richer." 

It  is  told  that  the  Emperor  Yuriaku  (457-479  a.d), 
sent  ambassadors  to  the  south  of  China,  and  had 
women  weavers  and  tailors  brought  thence  that  they 
might  teach  the  Japanese  their  industries.  And  the 
Japanese  began   to  weave  brocade  and  silk  damask 


and  to  do  artistic  embroidery.  The  Empress  herself 
bred  silk-worms  as  an  example  for  the  people.  The 
Emperor  encouraged  the  immigration  of  makers  of 
porcelain,  potters,  and  coiners  from  Pak-je.  The 
Japanese  proved  apt  pupils,  and  Chinese  fashions  in 
architecture  and  industrial  arts  made  great  progress 
in  the  land. 



In  the  time  of  the  21st  Emperor,  Yuriaku,  a 
Japanese  commander  in  Karak  on  the  peninsula  of 
Korea,  named  Kibi-no-Tasa,  allied  himself  with  the 
King  of  Sil-la.  He  was  really  a  vassal  of  the  Japanese 
Empire,  but  he  had  great  power  at  his  command,  and 
strove  after  independence.  At  first  the  Emperor 
wished  to  proceed  there  in  person  and  punish  the 
traitor,  but  by  the  request  and  advice  of  his 
councillors  he  gave  up  the  plan,  and  commanded  his 
general,  Ki-no-Oyumi,  to  undertake  the  campaign.  He 
had  little  success  and  fell  in  battle. 

During  the  reign  of  the  23rd  Emperor,  Kenzo- 
Tenno  (485-487  A.D.),  Oiwa,  the  son  of  the  Japanese 
general,  Ki-no-Oyumi,  revolted  in  Korea.  He  wished 
to  make  himself  king  over  the  three  Han,  and  con- 
spired with  the  King  of  Ko-gu-ryu.  But  the  army  of 
the  state  of  Pak-je  which  remained  loyal,  attacked 
him  and  compelled  him  to  flee  to  the  north. 

Later,  under  the  26th  Emperor,  Keitai  (507-531 
A.D.),  the  state  of  Karak  revolted  when  at  the  wish  of 
the  King    of    Pak-je,    the    Chancellor     Otomo-no- 


Kanamura  agreed  to  surrender  a  part  of  Karak.  Soon 
after,  the  King  of  Sil-la  allied  himself  with  a  Japanese 
Kuni-no-miyatsuko  *  named  Iwai  and  conquered  a 
part  of  Karak.  The  Emperor  commanded  his  general, 
Mononobe-no-Arakahi,  to  destroy  Iwai  and  then 
to  subdue  Sil-la. 

In  the  time  of  the  29th  Emperor,  Kimmei  (540-571 
A.D.),  Sil-la  undertook  an  invasion  of  Pak-je.  Seimei-o, 
king  of  that  province,  fell  in  battle.  Sil-la's  troops 
went  against  Karak,  and  drove  out  the  Japanese 
commander  (562  A.D.).  The  Emperor  sent  an  army 
against  Sil-la,  but  it  was  defeated  in  a  fierce  battle. 
Karak  was  now  completely  subdued  by  Sil-la,  and  the 
Japanese  rule  was  not  again  restored  there.  The 
Japanese  authority  was  maintained  only  in  Pak-je 
and  Ko-gu-ryu. 

In  spite,  however,  of  all  the  blood  spilled  by  Japan 
in  upholding  its  power  in  Korea,  and  the  decrease  of 
that  power,  the  march  of  civilization  induced  by  the 
conquest  of  that  land,  continued  its  steady  progress. 
It  showed  itself  especially  in  that  the  religion  pre- 
vailing on  the  continent  was  introduced  into  Japan. 

We  have  already  mentioned  in  the  introduction  that 
from  about  the  time  of  the  26th  Emperor,  the  matter 
of  our  sources  becomes  more  trustworthy,  and  that 
from  the  reign  of  Suiko-Tenno,  we  have  real  authentic 
history.  The  information  about  the  introduction  of 
Buddhism  into  Japan  may  be  regarded  as  absolutely 

1  Overseer  of  a  province. 



THE  Japanese,  like  the  Aryan  races,  in  the  beginning 
worshipped  the  forces  of  nature  as  divine  beings,  e.g. 
the  sun  as  Amaterasu-Omikami,  who  was  regarded  as 
the  mother  from  whom  the  imperial  family  sprang. 
Side  by  side  with  the  worship  of  the  forces  of  nature 
was  the  worship  of  ancestors.  Ancestor-worship  is 
closely  connected  with  the  important  position  occupied 
by  the  head  of  the  family  among  the  ancient  Japanese. 
After  his  death  the  father  of  the  family  enjoyed  divine 
honours.  Each  family  regarded  its  own  ancestors  as 
gods,  and  all  the  Japanese  worshipped  the  dead 
Emperor  and  various  heroes  as  gods.  Every  year  a 
festival  was  celebrated  in  honour  of  the  ancestors.  It 
was  believed  that  on  that  day  the  ancestors  came 
down  into  the  houses  of  their  descendants  and  wandered 
about  among  them.  The  people  bathed,  and  put  on 
their  best  garments  on  that  day,  kindled  lights,  placed 
food  for  the  ancestors  and  devoted  the  day  to  their 

Buddhism  came  into   successful   rivalry  with   this 
ancient  Kami-worship, l  but  the  old  religious  views 
1  Kami  =  ancestors. 


were  never  entirely  suppressed.  Buddhism  indeed 
was  comparatively  tolerant  to  them.  At  the  present 
time  the  old  ancestor-worship  is  continued  in  the  so- 
called  Shintoism,  which  experienced  a  revival  in  the 
1 8th  century  on  the  awakening  of  imperialist 

In  the  time  of  the  Emperor  Keita,  a  Chinese 
named  Shiba-Tatto  brought  an  image  of  Buddha 
with  him,  and  settled  in  Japan.  But  he  was  not  able 
to  convert  any  Japanese  to  his  faith. 

In  552  A.D.,  Kimmei-Tenno,  the  King  of  Pak-je  sent 
over  the  image  of  Buddha  and  sacred  Buddhist  books. 
The  Emperor  asked  his  two  highest  officers  of  state, 
O-omi  and  O-muraji,  whether  Buddha  should  be 
believed  in  or  not. 

Now  bitter  enmity  prevailed  between  O-omi  and 
O-muraji,  the  heads  of  two  rival  groups  of  families. 
O-omi  (i.e.  Great  Omi)  was  chief  of  the  Omi  family 
to  which  Soga,  Heguri,  and  Katsuragi  belonged. 
They  were  descended  from  the  family  of  the  Takeuchi, 
who  with  the  Empress  Jingu-Kogo  had  subdued 
Korea.  They  possessed  by  inheritance  one  of  the  two 
offices  of  chancellor.  The  two  Muraji  families,  the 
Mononobe  and  Nakatomi  possessed  the  other,  and  so 
they  each  strove  for  the  chief  power  in  the  Empire. 
The  attitude  of  the  two  high  officials  towards  Buddhism 
corresponded  to  the  enmity  between  the  two  families. 
O-omi,  named  Soga-no-Iname,  made  this  reply  to 
the  Emperor's  question  :  "  Buddhism  is  a  sublime 
spiritual  religion,  and  therefore  all  cizilized  peoples 
accept  it."     O-Muraji,  named  Mononobe-no-Okoshi, 


replied  on  the  contrary :  "  We  shall  remain  true  to 
our  old  religion,  otherwise  the  gods  will  chastise  us." 
The  Emperor  delivered  the  image  and  the  sacred 
books  to  O-omi,  and  said  :  "  You,  only,  believe  in 
him,  and  leave  the  people  to  their  old  faith."  Soga- 
no-Iname  rejoiced  over  those  words,  pulled  down 
his  house  and  on  its  site  built  a  temple  to  Buddha 
in  which  he  worshipped  him  every  day. 

Soon  after  the  plague  broke  out,  and  Mononobe- 
no-Okoshi  assured  the  Emperor  that  it  was  a 
punishment  sent  by  the  gods  for  O-omi's  conversion 
to  the  new  religion.  With  the  Emperor's  permission 
he  burnt  O-omi's  temple,  and  threw  the  image  of 
Bhudda  into  the  pond  Naniwa  in  the  province  of 
Yamato.  Henceforth  the  enmity  between  the  two 
families  was  greatly  increased  ;  it  was  inherited  by 
their  sons  and  by  all  the  families  related  to  them  and 
their  vassals.  The  army,  also,  which  gave  allegiance 
to  both  families,  divided  into  two  parties,  and  at  last 
things  went  so  far  that  Moriya,  the  son  of  Mononobe- 
no-Okoshi,  and  Umako,  the  son  of  Soga-no-Iname 
made  war  on  each  other.  The  Mononobe  family  was 
conquered  in  a  fierce  battle,  and  entirely  destroyed 
by  the  Soga  family  which  adhered  to  Buddhism. 
The  holding  of  high  office  of  any  O-Muraji  was 
made  impossible  for  ever  by  the  destruction  of  the 
Mononobe.  This  happened  in  the  reign  of  Jomei- 
Tenn5  (585-587  A.D.).  Religion  had  not  been  the 
principal  cause  of  the  fighting.  Peace  could  not  have 
lasted  long  between  the  two  powerful  officials,  O-omi 
and  O-Muraji.     A  decisive  battle  between  them  was 


inevitable.  The  religious  question  which  had  then 
become  acute  was  mingled  with  the  rivalry  of  the  two 
high  officials.  The  Soga  family  who  had  declared  in 
favour  of  the  new  religion  were  the  conquerors. 
Thus  Buddhism  would  be  accepted  in  the  official  class. 






After  the  murder  of  the  Emperor  Sushun  (587-592 
A.D.)  by  the  chancellor,  Umako,  his  sister,  Suiko- 
Tenno  (592-628  A.D.)  ascended  the  throne  as  first 
Empress.  The  crown  prince,  later  called  Shotoku,1 
conducted  the  government  for  her  as  regent.  He  was  an 
enlightened  adherent  of  Chinese  culture.  He  tried  to 
promote  learning  in  Japan  through  alliance  with  China. 
He  began  to  form  the  administration  of  home  affairs 
on  the  Chinese  model.  He  decreed  that  the  officials 
should  wear  a  uniform,  which  should  distinguish 
them  from  the  common  people,  and  also  mark  their 
rank,  and  tried  to  awake  in  them  a  strict  consciousness 
of  duty.  The  17  articles  dealing  with  morals  issued 
by  him  under  the  title  of  "  Constitution "  were 
especially  directed  to  the  official  class. 

1  During  his  life-time  his  name  was  Umayadono-Oji  or 
Toyoto  Mimi.  Shotoku-Taishi  is  his  posthumous  title  of 
honour,  and  means  the  greatly  wise  and  virtuous  crown  prince. 


The  introduction  of  the  Chinese  calendar  was  also 
due  to  him. 

He  sent  a  Japanese  ambassador  to  the  Chinese 
Emperor  to  deliver  a  letter  in  which  he  invited  friendly 
intercourse  between  the  two  nations.  The  am- 
bassador was  accompanied  by  a  number  of  Japanese 
students.  At  that  time,  589-617  A.D.,  the  Sui  dynasty 
was  reigning  in  China.  Under  it  art,  learning  and 
politics  made  great  progress,  and  reached  their  zenith 
under  the  Tang  dynasty  (618-906).  As  those 
Japanese  remained  in  China  until  that  period,  all  the 
great  results  of  Chinese  culture  were  made  directly 
accessible  to  Japan.  The  Emperor  of  China  on  his 
part  sent  an  ambassador  with  a  reply  to  the  Empress 
(607  A.D.).  Such  was  the  first  official  political  act 
between  the  two  states,  although  private  intercourse 
had  already  prevailed  for  a  long  time. 

Shotoku-Taishi  embraced  the  Buddhist  religion, 
and  built  many  temples  to  Buddha,  especially  the 
Temples  of  Horiuji1  and  Shitennoji,  which  are 
preserved  to  this  day. 

Professor  C.  Ito  has  devoted  a  careful  study  to  the 
architecture  of  the  temple  of  Horiuji.  He  finds  the 
Indian,  Chinese  and  Greek  styles  in  the  building. 
The  pillars  of  the  outer  gate  are  partly  Doric,  other 
parts,  for  example  the  roof,  the  windows  and  the 
galleries,  are  Chinese,  while  the  interior  is  Indian  in 
style.  It  is  recognised  that  under  Alexander  the 
Great,  Greek  culture  penetrated  to  India  (327  B.C.), 

1  Ji  =  Buddhist  Temple. 


and  it  must  be  admitted  that  Indian  art  when  it  was 
introduced  into  China  possessed  Greek  elements. 
The  Temple  of  H5riuji  offers  a  rich  field  for  the 
history  of  Japanese  art.  It  contains  many  statues  of 
Buddha,  some  in  wax,  others  in  bronze,  or  carved  in 
wood.  The  style  is  called  after  the  temple,  the 
Horiuji  style,  or  after  its  creator,  the  Tori  style.  The 
walls  of  the  temple  are  decorated  with  large  portraits 
of  Buddha.  They  were  painted  by  the  Buddhist 
priest,  Doncho  of  Korea,  who  first  introduced  painters' 
colours,  paper  and  Indian  ink  into  Japan.  The 
temple  also  contained  embroideries  on  silk,  Buddhist 
vessels  and  Chinese  musical  instruments  which  belong 
to  that  period. 



Chinese  civilization  soon  got  a  strong  hold  in  the 
Japanese  islands.  The  industrial  and  intellectual  life 
of  the  Japanese  people  already  bore  its  mark,  and 
Buddhism  steadily  gained  ground.  But  there  was 
one  fundamental  difference  between  Japan  and  China, 
and  that  lay  in  the  system  of  government  of 
each  state.  In  China  an  admirable  system  of 
administration  had  been  developed,  carried  out  in  an 
almost  modern  fashion  by  a  class  of  officials  who,  now, 
at  the  beginning  of  the  brilliant  epoch  of  the  Tang 
dynasty  won  universal  admiration.  In  Japan,  on  the 
contrary,  the  old  patriarchal  system  of  government 
still  prevailed. 

It  must  therefore  be  pointed  out  what  an  important 
part  the  family  (Uji)  played  in  the  life  of  the  Japanese 
nation.  The  Japanese  family  stood  in  intimate  relation 
with  the  father  of  the  family.  The  eldest  son  inherited 
the  position  of  father  of  the  family,  and  he  possessed 
the  same  power  over  the  families  of  his  brothers  and 
sisters  as  over  his  own  children.  So  there  was  close 
interdependence     among     individual     families,    and 



family  dependence  and  membership  was  of  the 
greatest  importance.  The  family  which  possessed  the 
greatest  number  of  kinsfolk  possessed  also  the 
greatest  power  in  the  state.  ^The  most  powerful 
families  had  hereditary  rights  to  the  highest  offices. 
As  the  Emperor  held  his  power  through  his  birth  and 
the  position  of  his  family,  so  the  chancellors,  the 
highest  officials  and  the  governors  of  the  provinces 
held  their  offices  through  their  birth  and  their 
families.1  They  did  not  owe  their  offices  to  the  favour 
of  the  Emperor,  they  inherited  them  as  the  property 
of  their  family. 

It  can  be  gathered  from  this  how  little  real  power 
the  Emperor  had  in  the  administration  of  his  empire. 
The  powerful  family  of  the  Soga,  especially  after  the 
destruction  of  their  rivals,  the  Mononobe,  succeeded 
in  gaining  such  a  strong  position  that  it  could 
venture  to  defy  the  imperial  family  and  even  to 
strive  after  the  imperial  dignity.  The  more 
oppressively  powerful  the  position  of  this  family 
became,  the  more  did  the  friends  and  representatives 
of  the  imperial  dynasty  feel  that  the  government  of 
the  Japanese  state  must  be  reformed  after  the  Chinese 

The  crown  prince  Shotoku  died  before  he  succeeded 
to  the  throne.     Shortly  after,  the  chancellor,  Soga-no- 

1  There  were  3  classes  of  families  :  1.  The  Kobetsu,  families 
of  the  imperial  race.  To  those  belonged  e.g.  the  Soga. 
2.  The  Shimbetsu,  families  of  the  Emperor's  vassals.  To 
those  belonged  e.g.  the  Nakatomi.  3.  The  Hambetsu,  the 
families  of  Chinese  and  Korean  immigrants. 


Umako,  who  had  been  a  champion  of  Buddhism  also 
died.  His  son,  Emishi,  inherited  his  office.  He 
arrogated  to  himself  more  independence  than  his 
father  had  had,  and  appointed  his  son  Iruka  to  sit  in 
office  with  him  without  the  Emperor's  permission. 
Iruka  was  cruel,  and  more  arrogant  and  overbearing 
than  his  father.  He  designated  his  son  by  the  title  of 
prince  and  called  his  house  the  imperial  court.  At  last 
he  set  aside  the  sons  of  the  crown  prince  Shotoku  with 
their  families,  and  thought  thereby  to  destroy  the 
imperial  dynasty  for  ever. 

But  there  was  a  noble  at  the  imperial  court,  by 
name  Nakatomi-no-Kamatari,  who  was  faithful  to 
the  imperial  family  and  sought  to  bring  about 
the  downfall  of  the  Soga  family.  For  that  purpose  . 
he  took  counsel  with  the  wise  prince,  Naka-  $ 
no-oe-Oji,  and  they  decided  on  the  murder  of  the 
arrogant  chancellor.  It  was  not  merely  an  act  of 
vengeance,  a  great  political  idea  was  allied  with  it :  to 
administer  the  government  of  the  Japanese  Empire 
on  the  Chinese  pattern.  Both  had  studied  the  Chinese 
form  of  government,  and  had  long  had  it  in  mind  to 
introduce  into  Japan  a  number  of  ministers  and 
officials  as  was  the  case  in  China.  To  carry  out  the 
plan,  it  was  first  necessary  to  destroy  the  Soga  family. 

During  the  festival  at  which  the  Korean 
ambassadors  offered  tribute  to  Kogioku-Tenn6  (642- 
645  A.D.),  they  murdered  the  Chancellor  Iruka  at  the 
feet  of  the  Empress,  and  had  his  palace  surrounded 
by  their  faithful  adherents.  Emishi,  surprised,  burnt 
all  the  treasures  and  documents  of  the  state,  among 


them  the  oldest  historical  works  of  Japan.1  Then  he, 
together  with  the  remaining  members  of  his  family, 
sought  death  in  the  flames  (645  A.D.). 

With  the  fall  of  the  Soga  family  the  last  obstacle  to 
the  complete  adoption  of  Chinese  civilisation  was 
removed.  The  government  of  the  Japanese  empire 
could  now  be  modelled  on  the  Chinese  plan,  and  in 
place  of  the  old  patriarchal  government  arose  a  much 
more  modern  system. 

1  The  Tenno-ki  and  the  Koku-ki  which  were  written  before  the 
Nihongi  in  720.  The  Kuji-ki  which  was  long  regarded  as  a  part 
of  the  Koku-ki  that  had  been  preserved,  is  a  later  forgery. 



PART    I 




SOON  after  the  violent  end  of  the  arrogant  Chancellor 
and  his  family,  the  Empress  abdicated  in  favour  of 
her  brother,  who  ascended  the  throne  as  Kotoku- 
Tenno  (645-654  A.D.J.  He  immediately  gave  the 
chief  authors  of  the  great  revolution,  Prince  Naka- 
no-oe-Oji  and  Nakatomi-no-Kamatori,  an  important 
part  in  the  management  of  the  administration.  He 
also  appointed  as  his  advisers  Takamuko-no- 
Kuromaro  and  Sobin,  two  men  who  had  lived  in 
China  for  a  long  time  and  were  intimately  acquainted 
with  Chinese  literature,  and  especially  with  the 
political  administrative  conditions  of  that  country; 
with  their  aid  he  began  to  reform  the  government 
and  administration  of  his  Empire  according  to  the 
Chinese  model.  The  great  significance  of  the  reform 
received  outward  expression  by  the  introduction  of 
the  Chinese  custom  of  giving  a  name  to  the  years, 
and  so  those  years  were  called  Taika,  i.e.  great 

Instead  of  the  high  officers  of  state  who  owed  their 
dignities    to     family    descent,     officials    were    now 


appointed  whose  posts  were  not  hereditary.  The  great 
plenipotentiaries  in  the  provinces  were  set  aside,  and 
replaced  by  governors  who  were  immediately  de- 
pendent on  the  crown,  and  were  changed  every  four 
years,  so  that  they  might  not  seek  after  independent 
power.  Every  province  was  declared  to  be  the 
property  of  the  Emperor,  and  all  inhabitants  the 
subjects  of  the  crown  ;  they  had  no  longer  to  pay  the 
taxes  to  the  governor  of  the  province,  but  direct  to. 
the  state  itself.  The  officials,  unlike  the  former 
plenipotentiaries,  received  a  salary.  According  to  a 
census  taken  at  that  time,  every  man  received  two 
Tan  '  of  rice-fields,  and  every  woman  two-thirds 
of  a  Tan.  On  the  death  of  the  owner  the  land  was 
to  go  back  to  the  government.  Every  man  had  to 
pay  a  fixed  annual  tribute  of  rice,  each  family  an 
annual  tax  of  part  of  the  produce  of  their  land 
according  to  its  extent,  e.g.  fruit,  silk,  or  fish.  Every 
man  between  20  and  50  years  of  age  was  obliged  to 
work  10  days  in  each  year  for  the  government,  but 
he  could  get  exemption  from  that  duty  by  paying  in 
kind.  The  Emperor  made  roads  and  kept  post 
horses  in  the  towns  and  villages  in  order  to  facilitate 
communication  with  the  provinces,  and  to  preserve 
better  control  over  the  administration. 

1 A  Tan  =  about  1200  square  yards  of  land. 



After  the  death  of  Kotoku-Tenno,  his  sister, 
Kogioku-Tenno,  ascended  the  throne  for  the  second 
time  under  the  name  of  Saimei-Tenno  (655-661  A.D.). 
The  crown  prince  Naka-no-oe-Oji  assisted  her  in  the 
execution  of  her  duties  without  assuming  the  imperial 

At  that  time  there  was  an  insurrection  of  the  Ainus. 
The  Empress  commissioned  the  general,  Abe-no- 
Hirafu  to  put  it  down,  and  he  succeeded  in  accom- 
plishing the  difficult  task.  The  Mishihase  or 
Makkatsu  who  also  rebelled  soon  after  were  subdued 
by  him.  But  the  government  were  not  able  to  cope 
with  the  disturbance  in  Korea  which  through  the  en- 
croachment of  China  now  entered  on  a  new  phase. 

For  the  last  hundred  years  there  had  been  con- 
tinual fighting  between  the  states  of  the  peninsula  of 
Korea.  As  related  above,  Sil-la  had  fallen  off  from 
Japan,  and  submitted  to  the  province  of  Karak.  Only 
Pak-je  and  Ko-gu-ryu  recognised  the  authority  of 
Japan.     When  at  this  time  Sil-la  again  fought  with 


Pak-je,  it  asked  help  of  the  imperial  dynasty,  Tang,  in 
China.  Chinese  troops  joined  with  the  army  of  Sil-la 
and  invaded  Pak-je.  The  auxiliary  troops  sent  by 
Japan  defeated  the  Chinese  army  after  severe  righting. 
Saimei-Tenno  died  at  that. time,  and  the  crown  prince, 
Naka-no-oe-Oji  ascended  the  throne  as  Tenji-Tenno 
(668-671  A.D.).  As  the  Chinese  now  succeeded  in 
subduing  Ko-gu-ryu,  and  so  bringing  the  whole  of  the 
peninsula  under  their  rule,  Tenji-Tenno  gave  up  re- 
sistance. Sil-la  gained  all  the  conquered  territory,  but 
was  compelled  to  recognise  Chinese  supremacy  (66$ 
A.D.).  So  ended  Japanese  rule  in  Korea.  It  had 
cost  Japan  much  blood  without  bringing  any  lasting 
political  advantage.  Its  chief  importance  lies  in  its 
influence  on  civilization. 

Tenji-Tenno  made  the  town  of  Shiga  on  the  banks 
of  the  lake  of  Biwa  in  the  province  of  Omi  his  place 
of  residence.  With  exceeding  energy  he  continued 
the  task  of  reforming  domestic  administration.  He 
founded  schools,  and  enacted  that  a  census  of  the 
people  should  be  taken  regularly  every  five  years,  and 
made  many  other  laws  and  decrees.  On  that  account 
he  was  called  the  "  Restorer." 

Under  Tenji-Tenno,  Nakatomino-Kamatari,  the 
man  who  had  played  so  important  a  part  in  the 
destruction  of  the  Soga  and  in  the  new  reforms,  en- 
joyed great  honour.  He  was  Tenji-TennS's  right  hand 
and  confidential  minister.  When  he  was  dangerously 
ill,  the  Emperor  visited  him  at  his  own  house,  and 
bestowed  on  him  the  title  of  Taishokukan,  which 
signified  great  distinction,  and  the  family  name  of 


Fujiwara.  After  Kamatari's  death  the  temple  of 
T<5-no-mine  was  built  in  his  honour,  in  which,  even 
to-day,  divine  honours  are  paid  him.  Hence  came 
the  rise  of  the  Fujiwara  family  which  later  played  so 
important  a  part. 

Tenji-Tenno  was  succeeded  by  his  son  K$bun- 
TennS  (672  A.D.).  But  after  three  months  he  was 
attacked  by  Prince  Oama,  Tenji-Tenno's  brother,  a 
personal  enemy  of  Tenji-Tenno,  at  the  head  of  a  large 
army,  and  therefore  committed  suicide.  Oama  as- 
cended the  throne  under  the  title  of  Temmu-Tenno 
(672-686  A.D.).  Although  hitherto  hostile  to  Tenji- 
TennS  he  accepted  his  reforms,  and  to  some  extent 
carried  them  further. 



A  SECOND  epoch  of  reform  was  inaugurated  by  the 
reign  of  the  42nd  Emperor,  Mommu  (696-707  A.D.), 
the  grandson  of  Temmu-Tenno.  Under  his  rule, 
Prince  Osakabe  and  the  minister,  Fujiwara  Fubito, 
son  of  the  famous  minister,  Kamatari,  in  the  first 
Taiho  year  added  a  number  of  laws  and  decrees  after 
the  Chinese  model  to  the  reforms  of  Koto-ku-Kuno 
and  Tenji-Tenno  (701  A.D.),  reforms  which,  except  for 
slight  changes,  remained  valid  until  modern  times. 

According  to  this  new  arrangement  the  two  Kan, 
Jingikan  and  Dajokan  formed  the  central  points  of 
the  government.  The  care  of  the  ancient  religious 
belief  and  ancestor-worship  was  entrusted  to  the 
Jingikan.  The  Dajokan  consisted  of  a  group  of  three 
persons,  namely,  the  Chief  Chancellor  (Dajodaijin)  the 
Chancellor  of  the  Left  (Sadajin^),  and  the  Chancellor 
of  the  Right  (Udaijin).  They  were  assisted  by  eight 
ministers,  viz.,  Nakatsukasa,  the  chief  minister,  whose 
duty  was  to  write  down  and  proclaim  all  the  edicts  of 
the  Emperor ;  Shikibu,  who  was  master  of  the  cere- 
monies and  minister  of  public  worship  and  instruction  ; 


Jibu,  overseer  of  the  officials  working  in  the  provinces ; 
Minbu,  minister  of  commerce  and  agriculture  ;  Hi5bu, 
minister  of  war  ;  Kiobu,  minister  of  justice  ;  Okura, 
minister  of  finance;  and  Kunai,  minister  of  buildings 
and  works  in  the  imperial  palace.  The  Dajokan  were 
also  assisted  by  the  Dainagon,1  who  lived  in  close 
attendance  on  the  Emperor  as  advisers  and  monitors  ; 
and  the  Dainagon  were  again  assisted  by  the  Shon- 
agon.9  Later  on  the  Dainagon  succeeded  in  making 
their  close  relations  with  the  Emperor  of  great  im- 
portance. Together  with  the  Chunagon,8  they  formed 
a  council  called  Sangi. 

The  capital  was  divided  into  two  districts.  The 
Ki5shiki  stood  at  the  head  of  each  of  those  districts, 
and  the  Kokuji  at  the  head  of  the  provinces,  below 
them  came  the  Gunji.  Those  officials,  as  stated  above, 
were  changed  every  four  years.  The  province  of 
Tsukushi,  in  the  north  of  the  island  of  Kiusiu  which 
was  of  especial  importance  for  the  defence  of  the 
frontier  against  China  and  Korea,  was  administered 
by  a  council,  "  Dazaifu,"  which  besides  the  duties  of 
a  prefect  had  also  military  powers  for  the  purpose  of 
securing  the  safety  of  the  frontier.  The  province  of 
Settsu  with  the  important  port  of  Naniwa  fnow 
Osaka)  was  administered  by  a  Settsu-shiki  which  also 
had  to  look  after  the  building  of  ships  and  the  carry- 
ing on  of  trade. 

1  Dai  =  great,  Nagon  =  monitor. 
9  Sho  =  small. 
8  Chu  =  middle. 


There  was  a  university  in  the  capital  and  a  school 
in  each  province.  The  imperial  guard  was  quartered 
in  the  capital  and  an  army  corps  was  kept  in  each 

The  criminal  code  contained  five  different  penalties  : 
flogging  with  the  whip ;  flogging  with  the  stick ; 
banishment  to  another  province  ;  banishment  to  a 
distant  island  ;  and  death. 

The  carrying  out  of  these  reforms  on  the  Chinese 
model  cut  so  deeply  into  the  old  conditions  of 
government  that  an  admirable  modern  state  was 
created  out  of  the  old  patriarchal  form  of  government. 

The  great  political  progress,  the  formation  of  a 
complicated  official  system  and  the  relations  into 
which  the  state  had  entered  with  China,  demanded  a 
permanent  seat  of  government  which  had  hitherto 
been  lacking.  It  had  been  the  custom  to  change  the 
seat  of  government  with  almost  every  new  sovereign. 
But  there  was  soon  to  be  an  end  of  that  system. 



Mommu-Tenno  left  a  son  who  was  a  minor,  and  so 
his  mother  ascended  the  throne  in  his  place  under  the 
name  of  Gemmi5-Tenno  (707-715  A.D.).  She  built  a 
palace  in  the  Chinese  style  at  Nara,  and  placed  the 
seat  of  government  there,  and  seven  Emperors  resided 
there  one  after  the  other :  Gemmio,  Gensho 
(715-724  A.D.),  Shomu  (724-749),  Koken  (749"758), 
Junnin  (758-764),  ShStoku  (764-769),  and  Konin 
(769-781  A.D.).  This  period  of  the  history  of  Japan 
is  called  "the  seven  courts  of  Nara,"  a  time  when 
Chinese  influence  held  full  sway. 

Gemmio-Tenno  was  the  first  to  introduce  bronze 
coinage  into  Japan,  and  as  in  China,  each  coin  had  a 
square  hole  in  the  middle. 

To  her  also  we  owe  the  earliest  source  of  Japanese 
history  that  has  come  down  to  us.  She  ordered  the 
Kojiki  to  be  written  down  by  a  nobleman  at  the 
court,  named  O-no-Yasumaro,  and  it  was  finished  in 
722.  It  covers  the  period  from  the  beginning  of 
Japanese  history  to  the  time  of  the  Empress  Suiko 
(592-628  A.D.).     It  was  based  on  the  oral  statements 


of  Hieda-no-Ares,  an  imperial  vassal  who  owed  his 
information  to  Temmu-Tenno.  By  her  order,  also,  a 
topographical  description  of  the  provinces,  called 
Fudoki,  was  made.  During  the  reign  of  the  next 
Empress,  Gensh5-Tenno,  O-no-Yasumaro,  at  the 
invitation  of  Prince  Toneri,  wrote  the  annals  called 
Nihon  Shoki,  which  are  based  on  Chinese  sources  and 
cover  the  period  from  the  origin  of  the  Japanese 
Empire  to  Jid5-Tenno  (690-696  A.D.). 

Chinese  influence,  which  entirely  prevailed  at  this 
era,  greatly  furthered  the  spread  of  Buddhism.  Shomu- 
Tenno,  (724-749  A.D.),  the  successor  of  Gensho-Tenno, 
and  also  his  wife,  Komio-kogo,  the  daughter  of  the 
minister,  Fubito,  and  so  the  first  Empress  not  of  im- 
perial descent,  were  ardent  adherents  of  the  new 
religion.  The  Buddhist  priesthood  now  began  to 
appear  at  court.  The  Emperor  regarded  himself  as  a 
Buddhist  monk,  and  called  himself  a  servant  of 
Buddha,  a  servant  of  the  Buddhist  priests  and  of  the 
Buddhist  doctrine.  The  Empress,  from  a  sense  of 
piety,  founded  a  workhouse  and  a  hospital.  The 
Emperor  built  many  Buddhist  temples  in  Nara,  and 
ordered  two  temples  to  be  erected  in  each  province, 
one  for  priests,  and  the  other  for  priestesses. 

The  Buddhist  priests,  whose  number  increased  with 
extraordinary  rapidity,  soon  acquired  great  secular 
power.  Many  of  them  wholly  abandoned  their 
religious  ideals,  and  gave  themselves  up  to  worldly 
interests.  One  of  them  named  Dokio  became  the 
favourite  of  the  Empress  Koken,  and  succeeded  in 
attaining  great  power  at  court.    If  he  did  not  actually 


possess  the  title  of  Chief  Chancellor,  he  was  the 
real  leader  of  the  government.  His  ambition  even 
soared  as  high  as  the  imperial  dignity  itself.  Wake- 
no-Kiyomaro,  who  warned  the  Empress  of  the  priest's 
plans,  was  banished  from  the  court  for  his  information, 
and  only  after  the  death  of  the  Empress  was  Dokid 
exiled  for  life  to  the  province  of  Shimozuke  by  her 

The  most  important  of  the  Buddhist  temples  of  that 
time  was  Todaiji  in  Nara.  It  is  famous  for  its 
enormous  gold  and  bronze  bust  of  Buddha,  over  48 
feet  high,  called  Nara-no-Daibutsu.  There  only 
remains  of  the  ancient  temple  a  subsidiary  building 
called  Shosoin  in  which  were  preserved  a  number 
ofN^ld  paintings,  woven  stuffs,  silk  embroideries, 
musical  instruments,  gold,  silver  and  ivory  vessels  and 
cups  belonging  to  the  imperial  family.  The  objects 
prove  the  height  to  which  art  had  risen  at  that  time. 
The  style  of  the  art  of  the  period  is  called  the  Tempio 
style  after  the  name  of  the  years  in  which  it  flourished 

Distinguished  scholars  and  authors  belong  also  to 
that  epoch.  We  may  mention  here  Abe-no-Nakamaro 
and  Kibi-no-Makibi,  who  had  lived  a  long  time  in 
China,  and  were  acquainted  with  Chinese  writers  like 
Rihaku  and  Toho.  Nakamaro,  at  the  request  of 
the  Emperor  of  China,  remained  in  China  till  his 
death.  Kibi-no-Makibi  returned  to  Japan  after  19 
years  absence,  and  became  tutor  to  the  Empress 
Koken,  the  daughter  of  Shomu-Tenn5  and  later 
Chancellor  of  the  Right.  He  invented  the  Japanese 
syllabic  writing,  consisting  of  50  letters  arranged  in 



tabular  form,  known  as  the  Katakana.1  The  form  is 
essentially  influenced  by  the  Sanskrit.  Celebrated 
song- writers  were  Kakino-moto-no-Hitomaro  and 
Yamabe-no-Akahito,  etc.  The  most  important 
collection  of  songs  of  that  epoch  is  the  Mannioshu. 

1  Kata  =  the  halves,  i.e.  Makibi  used  halves  of  Chinese  signs 
for  representing  the  Japanese  syllables.  Kana  =  equivalent 





The  50th  Emperor  Kammu  (781-806  A.D.),  the 
successor  of  KSnin,  was  not  satisfied  with  Nara  as 
a  place  of  residence.  He  laid  out  a  large,  regular, 
modern  city  on  the  plan  of  Chang-an,  the  capital 
of  the  Chinese  Empire  and  named  it  Heiankio,  i.e., 
the  town  of  peace.  Later  on  it  was  named  only 
Kioto,  i.e.,  Metropolis.  It  continued  to  be  the  residence 
of  the  Emperor  until  1869. 

From  the  time  of  Gemmio-Tenno,  the  Ainu  tribes 
had  been  in  a  continual  state  of  rebellion.  All  at- 
tempts to  subdue  them  permanently  had  failed. 
Kammu-Tenn5  now  sent  the  famous  General  Saka- 
none-no-Tamuramaro  against  them.  He  was  a  severe 
but  just  and  well-meaning  man.  The  strictest  discip- 
line prevailed  in  his  army  which  was  entirely  devoted 
to  him.  After  a  long  struggle  he  succeeded  in 
subduing  the  Ainus  for  ever. 

Shortly  after  the  death  of  Kammu-Tenno  disputes 
arose  about  the  succession.  Heijei-Tenno,  who  suc- 
ceeded him  (806-809),  soon  abdicated,  and  his  brother 


Saga-Tenno  (809-823)  ascended  the  throne.  But 
Kusuko  the  favourite  wife  of  Heijei-Tenn5  quarrelled 
with  Saga-Tenno.  She  and  her  brother  were  the 
leaders  of  a  conspiracy,  the  aim  of  which  was  to  thrust 
Saga-Tenn5  from  the  throne,  and  to  restore  Heijei- 
Tenno.  The  conspiracy  was  discovered.  Kusuko 
committed  suicide,  and  her  brother  was  executed. 

In  order  to  prevent  such  events  in  the  future, 
the  Emperor  instituted  a  guard  of  police  for  the 
capital,  and  placed  a  body-guard  about  his  own 
person,  the  Kebiishi. 

This  Emperor  erected  a  building  called  Kurododo- 
koro  for  the  preservation  of  documents  of  state.  He 
revised  the  laws  and  ordinances  of  the  Taihorio. 

He  was  a  very  learned  man  and  practised  the 
rare  and  highly  esteemed  art  of  writing.1  He 
was  also  the  author  of  valuable  works  ;  he  encouraged 
learning  and  the  arts,  and  they  made  great  progress 
in  his  reign. 

Besides  the  university  in  the  capital,  and  the  schools 
in  the  provinces,  there  were  many  private  schools  for 
the  nobility,  e.g.,  the  school  Gakkanin  for  the  Tachi- 
bana  family,  Kangakuin  for  the  Fujiwara  family, 
Shogakuin  for  the  imperial  family.  Among  the 
celebrated  scholars  of  the  time  Miyako-no-Yoshika, 
Omi-no-Mifune  and  Ono-no-Takamura  deserve 

1  Besides  the  Emperor  there  were  at  that  time  only  two  men 
who  could  write,  Kukai  and  Tachiba-na-no-Hayanari,  whose 
writing  was  for  a  long  time  typical.  The  three  men  were 
called  Sampitsu  (Sam  =  three,  Hitsu  or  Pitsu  =  caligraphers). 


Saicho  and  Kukai  were  the  most  distinguished  of 
the  Buddhist  priests.  Saicho  was  with  the  Japanese 
embassy  to  China  for  about  a  year,  and  on  his  return 
introduced  into  Japan  the  teaching  of  the  Tendai,  a 
sect  widely  spread  through  China  which  strove  to 
raise  the  position  of  the  priesthood  both  spiritually 
and  morally.  After  his  death  he  received  the  title 
of  Dengio-Daishi.  The  temple  built  by  him  on  the 
hill  of  Hiei  was  the  principal  temple  of  his  sect. 
Kukai  also  went  to  China.  On  his  return  to  Japan 
he  spread  the  teaching  of  the  Shingonshu,1  and  built 
a  temple  on  the  summit  of  the  hill  Koya  called  Kon- 
gobuji.  Both  men  were  distinguished  for  their  wide 
culture  and  learning.  Among  other  things  Kukai  im- 
proved the  Japanese  syllabic  writing  and  arranged 
it  in  alphabetical  form.  Kukai's  47  letters  are  called 
Hirakana.  After  his  death  he  received  the  title  of 
honour,  Kobo  Daishi. 

The  spread  of  Buddhism  in  Japan  was  greatly  pro- 
moted by  these  two  men,  and  especially  through  their 
toleration.  They  tried  to  reconcile  Buddhism  with 
the  old  Japanese  faith  in  gods, and  in  ancestor-worship. 
They  did  not  desire  that  the  ancient  faith  should  be 
discarded,  and  were  content  that  Buddha  should  be 
worshipped  side  by  side  with  the  old  gods,  as  an 
equally  privileged  god.  And  so  it  often  happened 
at  that  period  that  a  temple  of  the  old  Kami  worship 
was  joined  to  a  Buddhist  temple.  The  imperial  court 
where  many  converts  were  made  to  Buddhism  cele- 
brated a  Buddhist  service. 

1  Shu = Sect. 





The  leading  idea  in  the  political  reforms  of  the 
Taika  years  had  been  to  secure  the  Emperor  powerful 
influence  through  the  right  of  appointing  and  dis- 
missing officials.  But  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  these 
reforms  greatly  changed  the  ancient  procedure, 
hereditary  and  family  rights  and  privileges  played 
so  large  a  part  in  Japan,  that  new  independent  power 
arose.  High  officials  succeeded  in  securing  their 
posts  to  members  of  their  family  ;  in  fact  appointment 
to  office  was  not  made  for  personal  qualifications  but 
on  account  of  family  descent.  Thus  the  family  of 
Nakatomi-no-Kamatari  on  whom  Tenji-Tenno  had 
bestowed  the  title  of  honour  of  Fujiwara,  attained  to 
very  great  power,  and  its  members  were  continually 
appointed  to  the  highest  offices,  and  the  proceeding 
caused  many  disputes  and  disturbances  in  the  imperial 
family.  Yoshifusa,  the  daughter  of  the  minister 
Fujiwara,  was  the  wife  of  Prince  Michiyasu1  and 
became  Empress  at  his  accession,  a  fact  of  great 
importance  to  the  Fujiwara  family.    Through  this  con  - 

1  After  his  accession  he  was  called  Montoku-Tenno. 


nection  with  the  imperial  family,  the  Fujiwara  secured 
the  precedence  of  all  the  rest  of  the  rival  families. 
For  future  Emperors  would  be  of  their  blood. 

The  son  of  the  Empress  belonging  to  the  Fujiwara, 
was  only  9  years  old  when,  as  Seiwa-Tenno  (858-876) 
he  ascended  the  throne.  Therefore  his  grandfather, 
Fujiwara  Yoshifusa,  was  appointed  his  guardian. 
Later  on  when  a  more  youthful  Emperor,  Yozei- 
TennS  ascended  the  throne,  Mototsune,  an  adopted 
son  of  Fujiwara  Yoshifusa,  was  appointed  guardian. 
As  Yozei-TennS  had  feeble  health  and  was  incapable 
of  governing,  Fujiwara  Mototsune  remained  guardian 
when  the  Emperor  was  grown  up.  Mototsune 
greatly  distinguished  himself  during  his  regency,  and 
became  so  powerful  that  he  deposed  Yozei-Tenno, 
and  set  Koko-Tenno  (884-887)  on  the  throne,  who, 
being  Emperor  only  in  name,  left  all  power  and 
authority  to  Mototsune.  After  5  years  Koko-Tenno 
abdicated  in  favour  of  his  son,  Uda-Tenno  (887-897). 
Although  he  was  28  years  of  age,  Mototsune  assumed 
the  office  of  guardian,  for  so  far  had  it  come  that 
even  an  Emperor  who  was  of  age  had  to  acknowledge 
an  officially  recognised  guardian  from  the  all-power- 
ful minister's  family.  Such  a  guardian  for  an  adult 
Emperor  held  the  title  of  Kambaku. 

Chancellor  of  the  Right 



IT  was  natural  that  an  Emperor,  conscious  in  some 
degree  of  his  own  powers,  should  dislike  such  a 
guardianship,  and  so  Uda-Tenno  made  an  attempt 
to  destroy  the  supremacy  of  the  Fujiwara.  When 
his  Kambaku,  Mototsune,  died,  he  refused  to  recog- 
nise the  new  guardian  appointed  by  the  Fujiwara. 
Moreover,  he  sought  to  set  up  in  power  and  esteem 
another  family,  the  Sugawara,  as  rivals  to  the 
Fujiwara,  and  he  appointed  Michizane,  a  clever 
member  of  the  Sugawara,  Chancellor  of  the  Right. 
But  Uda-Tenno  was  not  the  man  wholly  to  carry 
out  his  great  political  ideas  for,  devoted  to  Buddhism 
with  his  whole  soul,  he  abdicated  in  favour  of  his 
twelve  year  old  son,  shaved  his  head,  and  became  a 
Buddhist  monk.  He  arranged  that  no  Fujiwara  should 
receive  the  office  of  guardian  to  the  boy  Emperor, 
Daigo-Tenno  (897-930  A.D.),  and  out  of  hatred  to 
them  he  offered  Michizane  the  post  of  guardian 
to  the  young  Emperor.  But  the  power  of  the 
Fujiwara  was  still  exceedingly  great,  and  Michizane 


refused  the  invitation  from  fear  of  them.  Mototsune's 
son,  Fujiwara  Tokihira,  who  was  Chancellor  of  the 
Left,  gained  so  great  an  influence  over  the  young 
Emperor  that  he  succeeded  in  slandering  Michizane 
to  him  and  procuring  his  banishment.  Michizane 
died  in  exile. 

When  Daigo-Tenno  was  grown  up,  he  ruled  with 
wisdom  and  mercy.  His  reign  lasted  33  years  and 
was  prosperous  and  happy.  Poetry  and  science 
flourished,  and  the  scholars  and  writers,  Sugawara 
Michizane,  Miyoshi  Kiyoyuki  and  Kino  Haseo,  who 
had  all  had  a  Chinese  education  deserve  mention. 
Kino  Tsurayuki  and  OshikSchi  Mitsune  were  dis- 
tinguished song-writers ;  Kino  Tsurayuki  wrote 
Japanese  prose  in  his  descriptions  of  travel.  At  the 
command  of  Daigo-Tenno  they  both  collected 
Japanese  songs  ;  their  comprehensive  collection  fills 
20  volumes  and  is  the  first  made  with  imperial  co- 

There  was  also  at  this  time  a  celebrated  painter, 
named  Kose  Kanaoka. 



The  founding  of  a  fixed  place  of  residence,  and  the 
increase  of  prosperity  resulted  in  more  luxurious 
ways  at  court.  The  nobles  and  their  families  who 
lived  at  Ki5to  vied  with  each  other  in  the  display  of 
splendour  and  luxury.  Many  families  who  hitherto 
had  held  a  high  position  lost  their  wealth  through 
their  extravagant  way  of  life.  On  the  other  hand 
the  Fujiwara,  through  their  alliance  with  the  imperial 
family,  attained  greater  power  than  ever.  Their 
supremacy  was  so  oppressive  to  the  other  families 
that  they  preferred  to  leave  Kioto  and  settle  in  the 
country.  The  Fujiwara  family  who  now  held  sway 
alone  in  the  capital,  led  a  life  of  magnificence  and 
luxury.  In  the  administration  of  the  land  they  no 
longer  considered  the  welfare  of  the  state,  but 
thought  of  their  own  advantage,  especially  of  obtain- 
ing means  for  their  luxurious  way  of  life.  They 
granted  privileges  to  the  officials  and  nobility  in  the 
provinces  in  return  for  others  granted  to  themselves. 
The  ordinances  of  the  great  Reform  era  were  set 
aside,  and  official   posts   became  hereditary.      Thus 


the  territorial  nobility  again  became  powerful,  they 
gained  extensive  landed  property,  forced  the  peasants 
to  serve  them,  and  so  were  in  a  position  to  raise 
troops  and  command  great  military  power. 

This  military  and  feudal  nobility  now  beginning  to 
make  itself  felt  in  the  country,  was  later  called  Buke, 
to  distinguish  it  from  the  court  nobility  which  was 
called  Kuge. 

The  development  of  feudalism  and  of  the  power 
of  the  nobility  was  closely  associated  with  numerous 
internal  struggles. 

In  the  time  of  Suzaku-Tenno  (930-946  A.D.),  Taira 
Masakado,  a  descendant  of  Kammu-Tenno,  asked 
the  minister  Fujiwara  Tadahira  to  appoint  him 
Colonel  of  the  Police  (Kebushi).  When  Fujiwara 
refused,  he  went  back  to  his  native  province  of 
Shimosa  which  lay  to  the  east,  collected  troops, 
attacked  the  neighbouring  province  of  Hidachi, 
and  murdered  the  prefect  who  was  his  uncle. 
The  central  power  was  not  strong  enough  to  put 
down  the  rebel,  who  later  marched  through  the 
country  plundering  as  he  went.  In  939  A.D.  he  even 
built  a  fortress  in  the  village  of  Sashiura,  in  the 
province  of  Shimosa,  and  ruled  there  like  an  in- 
dependent prince,  from  time  to  time  renewing  his 
raids  into  the  neighbouring  district.  At  that  time 
also  Fujiwara  Sumitomo  rebelled  in  western  Japan. 
He  allied  himself  with  pirates,  ruled  the  Seto  inland 
sea  with  them,  and  made  raids  on  the  coasts.  He 
even  extended  his  plundering  enterprises  as  far  as 
the  capital,  Ki5to,  and  set  fire  to  it. 


So  that  anarchical  conditions  prevailed.  The 
imperial  court  lived  in  fear  and  terror.  They 
managed  to  equip  an  expedition  against  Taira 
Masakado,  but  it  only  reached  Shimosa  when 
Masakado  had  already  been  defeated  and  killed 
(940  a.d.)  by  independent  nobles  in  the  province  of 
Hidachi,  by  Taira  Sadamori,  whose  father  he  had 
murdered,  and  by  Fujiwara  Hidesato.  Fujiwara 
Sumitomo,  likewise,  was  not  conquered  by  the 
central  government  but  by  the  territorial  nobility. 
His  conquerors  were  Minamoto  Tsune-moto  and 

The  authority  and  influence  of  the  Taira  and  the 
Minamoto  greatly  increased  during  this  period. 
There  existed  a  great  distinction  between  them  and 
the  Fujiwara.  The  Fujiwara  were  a  family  of  ministers 
and  their  importance  lay  in  the  fact  that  they  held 
the  court  and  all  the  officials  in  their  hands.  The 
others  relied  on  the  military  power  which  they  had 
established  in  their  territories. 





MURAKAMI-Tenno  (946-967),  the  son  of  Daigo- 
Tenno  made  a  fresh  attempt  to  get  the  government 
of  the  state  into  his  own  hands.  Although  possessed 
of  undoubted  talent,  he  was  not  successful  in 
effecting  any  real  reform  in  the  conditions  of 
government.  The  power  of  the  Fujiwara  family  had 
already  become  too  strong.  His  son,  Reizei-Tenno 
(967-969),  came  again  under  the  guardianship 
of  the  powerful  clan,  and  for  more  than  a  century, 
the  old  imperial  family  sank  into  entire  insignificance. 
The  court  life  of  the  Fujiwara  wTas  of  great 
magnificence,  especially  that  of  Fujiwara  Michinaga, 
who  governed  the  country  for  about  30  years  as 
guardian  for  three  Emperors.  He  married  his  three 
daughters  to  imperial  princes  and  became  the 
grandfather  of  three  Emperors.  His  five  sons  were 
appointed  to  the  highest  offices.  He  set  up  and 
deposed  Emperors  at  pleasure.  The  Fujiwara  loved 
splendour  and  luxury  and  encouraged  the  fine  arts. 


Fujiwara  Michinaga  erected  magnificent  buildings 
and  laid  out  fine  gardens.  Of  all  the  temples  he 
built,  the  finest  was  the  royal  temple  at  Mido.  He 
was  therefore  called  Mido  Kambaku.  His  motto  was : 
■  The  moon  changes  every  month,  but  I  am  always 
the  full  moon.'*  His  son  Yorimichi  was  also  guardian 
for  about  50  years  and  for  three  Emperors.  Then  he 
resigned  and  lived  in  royal  splendour  in  Uji  as  Uji- 

The  most  important  circumstance  of  this  period  of 
the  supremacy  of  the  Fujiwara  was  that  the  Chinese 
civilization  that  had  hitherto  prevailed  took  on  more 
and  more  of  Japanese  colour.  For  a  long  time 
China  had  been  in  a  disturbed  condition,  and 
endless  civil  wars  had  rendered  regular  diplomatic 
intercourse  with  a  foreign  state  impossible.  There- 
fore by  the  advice  of  the  chancellor,  Sugawara 
Michizane,  Daigo-Tenno  had  not  sent  ambassadors 
to  China,  and  in  the  following  years  official  relations 
had  been  lacking  with  a  country  torn  by  civil  war. 
So  that  Japanese  civilization  began  to  assume  an 
independent  national  character. 

The  syllabic  writing  consisting  of  47  letters 
invented  by  Kukai  now  came  into  practical  use. 
We  have  already  mentioned  that  the  author,  Kino 
Tsurayuki,  used  it  for  his  prose  works.  Many  writers 
followed  his  example,  e.g.  the  unknown  author  of  the 
Satire  (<  Torikaebaya-monogatari,"1  and  the  learned 
poetess  Murasaki-Shikibu  who  lived  at  the  imperial 

1  The  story  of  the  topsy-turvy  world. 


court,  in  her  "  Genji-monogatari,"  '  and  the  learned 
lady-in-waiting,  Seishonagon,  in  her  regular  reports 
of  the  events  of  the  day  destined  for  the  court,  which 
were  collected  under  the  title  of  "  Makura-no-soshi," 
and  in  her  songs.  At  that  time  learned  women  and 
poetesses  were  no  rarity  at  court.  Girls  received  an 
excellent  education.  Women  held  as  important  a 
place  at  court  as  they  did  in  European  society. 
In  the  satire  "  Torikaebaya-monogatari "  mentioned 
above,  the  unknown  author  scourges  that  condition 
of  things  and  says,  scoffingly,  the  men  were  women 
and  the  women  men. 

In  architecture  also,  an  independent  spirit  now 
ruled,  and  it  was  freed  from  Chinese  influence. 
Beautiful  gardens  were  laid  out  with  fountains,  ponds, 
and  artificial  eminences,  and  pretty  country  houses 
were  built.  Chinese  costume  went  out  of  fashion, 
and  clothes  were  made  according  to  Japanese  taste. 
The  Japanese  garment  "  Kimono,"  came  into 
being.  Japanese  arts  and  industries  developed 
independently,  and  furniture  and  utensils  were  made 
in  their  own  taste.  Painting  and  sculpture  produced 
original  talent.  The  painter  Takuma  Tamenari  made 
his  celebrated  wall  paintings  at  Uji  in  the  royal 
temple  Hoodo,  built  by  Uji-Kambaku,  and  Jocho 
his  well-known  statues  of  Buddha. 

When  the  tribe  Joshin,  which  occupied  a  fairly 
independent  position  in  Manchuria,  attacked  the 
inhabitants  of  the  Japanese  islands,  Iki  and  Tsush- 

1  The  story  of  the  hero  Genji. 


I  KVrn*  J,     Hf. 


ima,  Fujiwara  Takaie,  the  President  of  the  Dazaifu 
board  which,  as  we  have  already  said,  governed  the 
province  of  Tsukushi,  successfully  repulsed  the 
enemy.  _JBut  soon  afterwards  in  the  time  of  Go- 
Reizei-Tenno  (1045-1068),  the  noble  and  great 
landed  proprietor  Abe-no- Yoritoki  and  his  son  set 
on  foot  a  rebellion  in  the  province  of  Mutsu.  The 
Fujiwara  were  powerless  against  them,  and  the 
Emperor  was  compelled  to  beg  help  of  the  Minamoto 
against  the  rebels.  After  twelve  years'  fighting,  the 
Minamoto  succeeded  in  quelling  the  rising.  During 
that  time  their  military  power  increased,  and  they 
were  soon  strong  enough  in  alliance  with  the  Taira 
to  put  down  the  power  of  the  hitherto  ruling  family 
of  officials,  the  Fujiwara. 






ABDICATED.         GROWING     POWER     OF     THE     TAIRA 


UNDER  the  guardianship  of  the  Fujiwara  family,  the 

Emperor   led    a    wretched^  sort   of  mock   existence. 

They    forced    the    adult    Emperors    to   abdicate    so 

that     most     of    the     Emperors    who     sat    on     the 

throne   were    minors.      The    imperial    princes   were 

married    to   daughters    of  the   Fujiwara,   and   those 

alliances  increased  the  power  of  the  clan.      But  the 

Fujiwara,  like  the  Emperors  of  an  earlier  time,  gave 

themselves    up   to    a   life    of  luxury,    wasted    their 

strength    in    excesses,    and    entirely    neglected    to 

establish  a  military  basis.     So  that  directly  a  capable 

ruler  came  to  the  throne,  he  was  able  to  free  himself 

from  their  guardianship. 

x        Such   an    Emperor    was    Go-Sanjo-Tenn5   (1068- 

\  1072).     On  his  accession  he  directed  all  his  efforts  to 

I  put  an  end  to  the  co-operation  of  the  Fujiwara  in  the 

igovernment  and   to   restore   the  imperial   family  to 

^power  and  esteem.     As  far  as  possible  he  ruled  by 


himself,  and  the  Fujiwara  family  and  the  rest  of  the 
nobility  had  to  content  themselves  with  administering 
their  own  property  and  the  provinces  they  had 
gained.  The  Emperor  forbade  the  officials  to  sell 
their  posts  and  arranged  that  officials  could  only  be 
appointed  by  himself.  He  practised  great  economy, 
and  tried  to  curb  the  expenditure  of  the  officials. 
And  thus  he  was  able  somewhat  to  improve  public 
order  and  administration.  His  last  political  idea  was 
that  the  restoration  of  the  guardianship  of  the 
Fujiwara  must  be  prevented  and  that  therefore  the 
Emperor  should  abdicate  in  good  time,  and  himself 
become  the  guardian  of  his  successor.  He  put  his 
idea  into  practice  by  abdicating  himself,  and 
continuing  to  govern  as  guardian.  Then  death  over- 
took him. 

His  son,  Shirakawa-Tenno  (1072-1086),  the  72nd 
Emperor,  followed  his  father's  example,  and  under- 
took the  guardianship  of  his  son,  and  after  his  death, 
of  his  grandson.  And  so  the  guardianship  of  the 
Fujiwara  was  abolished  for  ever.  Yet  they  continued 
to  hold  a  great  position  at  court,  since  the  most 
important  offices  of  state  were  still  filled  by  members 
of  their  family. 

Shirakawa-Tenno  did  not  inherit  his  father's 
economy.  He  built  many  temples,  set  up  over  3,000 
statues  of  Buddha,  and  undertook  pilgrimages  to  the 
temples  of  Koza  and  Kumano,  both  at  a  great 
distance  from  the  capital.  These  pilgrimages  cost 
large  sums  of  money,  since  the  Emperor  was 
accompanied    by    a   large   and    splendidly   equipped 


suite.  And  so  it  came  that  he  was  forced  to  sell 
offices  and  privileges  for  money,  and  that  in 
consequence  the  imperial  power  was  weakened. 

His  piety  and  his  submission  to  the  Buddhist 
religion  had  a  very  bad  result  in  the  power  of  the 
priests  who  from  that  time  became  more  and  more 
overbearing.  They  even  entered  on  wars,  collected 
mercenary  troops,  and  made  private  war.  The 
temples  of  Enriakuji  and  Kofukuji,  especially,  collected 
large  armies  and  entered  into  bloody  wars.  They 
paid  no  heed  to  imperial  decrees.  In  order  to  defy 
the  government,  they  allied  themselves  more  closely, 
made  continual  raids  on  Kioto,  and  threatened  the 
court  there.  Shirakawa-Tenn5  used  to  say :  "  As 
little  as  the  weeds  and  the  waters  of  the  Kamogawa1 
obey  my  orders,  as  little  do  my  priests  heed  them." 
The  Taira  and  the  Minamoto  were  his  last  refuge  ;  he 
begged  them  to  come  to  the  capital  to  protect  it  from 
the  attacks  of  the  priests.  A  short  time  before,  the 
Minamoto  family  had,  at  the  Emperor's  request, 
defeated  Kiyowara  Takehira,  the  imperial  commander, 
and  his  nephew  who  had  led  an  insurrection  in  the 
province  of  Mutsu.  So  the  two  military  families 
became  indispensable  to  the  imperial  court,  and  in 
time  gained  the  same  power  as  the  Fujiwara  had  had 
before  them. 

lKawa  or  Gawa  =  river. 



BLOODY  dissensions  that  occurred  in  the  imperial 
family  itself  contributed  in  an  important  degree  to 
strengthen  the  power  of  the  two  ambitious  military 

After  the  death  of  Shirakawa-TennS,  his  grandson, 
the  Toba-Tenn5  who  had  abdicated,  undertook  the 
guardianship  for  his  eldest  son,  Sutoku-Tenno  (1123- 
1 141 ).  But  he  soon  deposed  him  and  set  his  youngest 
and  favourite  son,  Konoe-Tenno  (1141-1155),  on  the 
throne.  He  died,  however,  when  he  was  sixteen  years 
old,  and  then  Toba-Tenn5  bestowed  the  imperial 
throne  on  another  of  his  sons,  Go-Shirakawa-Tenn5 
(11 5 5- 1 158).  This  roused  the  anger  of  his  deposed 
eldest  son,  Sutoku-Tenno,  who  desired  that  he  or  his 
son  should  be  Emperor.  As  long  as  his  father  lived, 
he  controlled  his  anger,  but  on  his  death  he  assembled 
a  large  army,  and  laid  siege  to  Go-Shirakawa-Tenn5's 
palace.  In  sore  need  he  was  compelled  to  call  in  the 
help  of  Minamoto  Yoshitomo  and  Taira  Kiyomori, 
who   after  severe  fighting  put  the  deposed   Sutoku- 


Tennd  to  flight.  He  fell  into  the  hands  of  the 
imperial  army  and  was  banished  to  the  province  of 
Sanuki  in  the  island  of  Shikoku. 

The  two  families,  who  in  this  manner  acquired  a 
most  influential  position  at  the  imperial  court,  soon 
began  to  quarrel  among  themselves. 



MiNAMOTO  YOSHITOMO  was  a  distinguished  soldier, 
and  Taira  Kiyomori  an  astute  statesman.  The  latter, 
through  his  friendship  with  Shinsai,  an  intriguing 
court  official  and  a  favourite  of  the  Emperor,  acquired 
greater  influence  and  power  at  court  than  Minamoto. 
At  that  time  also  one  of  the  Fujiwara  named  Nobu- 
yori  enjoyed  the  favour  of  Go-Shirakawa-Tenno.  He 
sought  by  his  intervention  to  get  himself  appointed 
general  of  the  guards.  But  the  Emperor  at  the 
instigation  of  Shinsai,  the  rival  favourite,  refused 
his  request.  Fujiwara  sought  a  means  of  revenge 
and  allied  himself  with  Minamoto  Yoshimoto  who 
was  an  enemy  of  Taira  Kiyomori,  and  his  friend  the 
courtier  Shinsai.  In  1 159  Fujiwara  and  Minamoto 
came  to  open  war  with  the  Taira.  They  soon 
defeated  them,  occupied  the  imperial  palace  and  for 
ten  days  ruled  in  the  name  of  the  Emperor.  But  the 
Taira  quickly  collected  fresh  troops  with-whom  they 
now  proceeded  to  gain  a  victory  over  their  enemies. 
Fujiwara  Nobuyori  and  Yoshitomo's  eldest  son  were 
taken  prisoners   in   the  battle,  and   soon   afterwards 


executed.  Minamoto  Yoshitomo  fled,  and  hid  among 
his  vassals,  but  they,  from  fear  of  punishment, 
treacherously  murdered  him. 

The  Taira  were  now  determined  to  render  the 
Minamoto  family  harmless  forever.  They  banished 
Yorimoto,  the  eldest  of  Yoshitomo's  surviving  sons 
(by  his  lawful  wife)  to  the  province  of  Izu  where  he 
was  placed  under  the  surveillance  of  Hojo  Tokimasa, 
one  of  their  vassals.  The  other  sons  with  their  mother 
(a  concubine  of  Yoshitomo)  were  taken  prisoners  in 
the  country.  The  mother  only  saved  her  children's 
lives  by  giving  herself  to  her  deadly  foe,  Taira  Ki- 
yomori.  The  children,  one  of  whom  was  later  the 
famous  Yoshitsune,  were  hidden  in  a  monastery. 
The  vassals  of  the  conquered  family  were  distributed 
through  various  districts  of  the  land,  and  it  seemed  as 
if  a  restoration  of  the  Minamoto  was  rendered 
absolutely  impossible.  But  even  in  exile,  their  vassals 
remained  loyal  to  them,  and  only  waited  until  Yo- 
shitomo's sons  should  be  grown  up,  in  order,  under 
their  leadership,  to  take  up  arms  for  their  hereditary 



After  this  war  the  Taira  held  all  the  power  in  their 
own  hands.  Kiyomori  was  chancellor-in-chief  and 
received  the  title  of  Juichii.1  His  daughter  was  the 
wife  of  Takakura-Tenn5  (1168-1180).  His  sons  and 
other  relatives,  sixteen  in  number,  were  ministers,  or 
held  other  high  offices.  Half  of  the  whole  of  the 
Japanese  Empire  was  in  the  private  ownership  of  the 
Taira  family.  It  was  said  at  that  time  that  no  one 
who  did  not  belong  to  the  race  of  the  Taira  was  a  man. 
The  family  soon  became  so  arrogant  and  proud  that 
it  was  universally  hated. 

Even  Go-Shirakawa-Tenno  who  had  abdicated,  had 
to  suffer  under  their  authority  and  tried  to  free  him- 
self from  it.  Therefore  his  favourite  Fujiwara  Nari- 
chika  brought  together  many  malcontents  in  the 
house  of  the  priest  Shunkan  in  the  village  of 
Shishi-ga-dani,  and  they  formed  a  conspiracy.  They 
were  discovered,  and  the  conspirators  were  put  to 
death  or  exiled.     Taira  Kiyomori  conceived  a  plan 

1  The  highest  title  that  an  official  can  hold  in  his  lifetime. 

Taira  Shigemori 

Face  />.  79] 


to  imprison  Go-Shirakawa-Tenno,  whom  he  entirely 
mistrusted.  But  his  son,  Shigemori,  who  remained 
loyal  to  the  deposed  Emperor  was  able  for  some  time 
to  prevent  its  execution.  When,  however,  he  had 
died  of  grief  for  his  father's  many  misdeeds,  the  latter 
kept  Go-Shirakawa-Tenno  a  prisoner  in  a  castle  near 
the  capital. 

But  when  soon  after  the  wife  of  the  Emperor  Taka- 
kura,  the  daughter  of  Taira  Kiyomori,  bore  a  son, 
Kiyomori  compelled  Takakura-Tenno  to  abdicate,  and 
placed  the  new-born  infant  on  the  throne  as  Antoku- 
Tenno  (1180-1185)  in  order  to  assume  the  guardian- 
ship for  his  grandson.  He  now  felt  himself  secure  in 
power,  and  kept  a  brilliant  and  luxurious  court.  And 
his  officials  and  all  the  members  of  his  family  did  like- 
wise and  led  a  life  of  luxury  and  dissipation,  in  abso- 
lute certainty  of  the  strength  of  their  supremacy. 

But  the  Minamoto  and  their  dependents  had  never 
ceased  to  plan  an  attack  on  their  enemies. 

Minamoto  Yoshitsune  left  the  monastery,  and  fled 
to  the  north  of  the  empire,  where  he  prepared  himself 
for  the  coming  fight  by  many  a  knightly  adventure. 
Meanwhile  Minamoto  Yoritomo  had  made  friends  with 
his  guardian,  Hojo  Tokimasa,  and  had  married  his 
daughter.  He  was  the  real  leader  of  the  conspiracy 
against  the  Taira.  Secretly  the  Minamoto  won  adher- 
ents and  economised  their  strength.  It  was  of  the 
greatest  importance  that  the  son  of  the  imprisoned  Go- 
Shirakawa-Tenno  should  support  them,  and  with  his 
consent,  Minamoto  Yoritomo  began  to  collect  troops  in 
the   province  of    Izu,   while   his    cousin,    Minamoto 


Yoshinaka,  collected  the  sinews  of  war  in  the  province 
of  Shinano. 

Taira  Kiyomori  was  not  to  live  to  see  the  end  of  the 
struggle.  On  hearing  of  the  rebellion  he  sent  a 
powerful  army  against  Yoritomo,  but  it  could  do 
nothing  against  him,  and  after  receiving  the  news  of 
the  defeat  Kiyomori  died. 

Minamoto  Yoshinaka  had  meanwhile  succeeded  in 
subduing  the  province  of  Shinano,  and  soon  conquered 
also  the  territory  lying  to  the  north-west  of  the  pro- 
vince. He  put  an  army  sent  against  him  by  the 
Taira  to  flight,  and  pursued  it  even  to  the  capital. 
The  Taira  then  fled  with  the  young  Antoku-Tenn5 
and  the  insignia1  preserved  in  the  imperial  palace,  to 
the  west  of  Japan. 

Go-Shirakawa-Tennd  returned  to  the  capital  from 
his  prison.  He  set  up  Go-Toba-Tenno,  a  half-brother 
of  Antoku-Tenno  as  Emperor,  so  that  there  were  now 
two  Emperors. 

Strife  soon  broke  out  between  the  victors.  By  his 
insolent  and  cruel  government  Minamoto  Yoshinaka 
evoked  the  hostility  of  Go-Shirakawa,  the  guardian  of 

1  The  insignia  consisted  of  copies  of  the  mirror  and 
sword.  According  to  the  Nihongi,  Sujin-Tennd  built  a  temple 
in  Kasanui  (province  of  Yamato)  for  the  mirror  and  sword  that 
had  been  presented  by  Amaterasu-Omikami.  At  the  same  time 
he  had  copies  made  of  them  which  were  preserved  in  the  im- 
perial palace  together  with  the  Magatama.  Under  Suinin- 
Tenno  the  real  mirror  and  sword  were  kept  in  another  place. 
He  built  a  new  temple  for  them  in  the  province  of  Ise  on  the 
Isuzu  where  they  continued  to  be  preserved. 

Battle  of  the  Minamoto  and  Taira 


the  Emperor.  He  summoned  Minamoto  Yoritomo  to 
his  aid,  who  meanwhile  had  made  Kamakura  in  the 
plain  of  Kant5  his  residence  and  from  there  directed 
the  enterprise  against  the  Taira.  Yoritomo  sent  an 
army  against  Yoshinaka  under  the  command  of  his 
brothers  of  whom  Yoshitsune  especially  distinguished 
himself  by  deeds  of  valour.  They  were  victorious  and 
by  the  order  of  Yoritomo  they  put  Yoshinaka  to  death. 

The  Taira  thought  to  use  these  quarrels  of  the 
Minamoto  family  to  regain  their  old  supremacy. 
They  ventured  an  attack  on  the  capital  which  was  an 
entire  failure.  Driven  back  they  fled  into  the  province 
of  Sanuki.  The  Minamoto  pursued  them,  and  gained 
a  victory  over  them,  and  the  Taira  had  to  take  refuge 
in  their  ships  and  flee  to  the  west.  But  there,  too, 
they  were  pursued  by  land  or  sea  by  their  victorious 
adversaries.  When  they  tried  to  land  on  the  coast  of 
the  Dan-no-ura  Sea  it  was  already  occupied  by  the 
Minamoto.  Some  who  tried  to  effect  a  landing 
by  force,  fell  in  the  struggle,  and  the  rest  were 
drowned.  The  Emperor's  grandmother,  the  widow  of 
Taira  Kiyomori,  threw  herself  into  the  sea  with  the 
young  Antoku-Tenno  and  the  imperial  insignia.  And 
so  after  a  supremacy  of  thirty  years  the  Taira  family 
was  destroyed  for  ever  (i  185). 

The  imperial  family  for  whom  the  Taira  had  become 
too  powerful  did  not  long  enjoy  the  triumph  of  their 
downfall.  They  had  had  a  dangerous  ally  in  the 
struggle,  one  who  was  now  all  powerful  and  able  to 
secure  greater  authority  in  the  Empire  than  the 
Taira  had  possessed. 










It  has  been  already  stated  that  Minamoto  Yoritomo, 
at  the  time  of  the  downfall  of  his  family,  had  taken  up 
his  residence  at  Kamakura  in  the  eastern  province  of 
Sagami,  and  thence  conducted  the  military  enterprises 
of  his  family.  The  Samurai-dokoro,  the  officials  ap- 
pointed by  Yoritomo  for  military  affairs,  had  their 
seat  there.  When  the  whole  power  came  into  the 
hands  of  the  Minamoto,  Kamakura  became  the  real 
seat  of  government.  Yoritomo  appointed  Kumonjo 
or  Mandokoro,  the  actual  government  officials,  with 
Monjusho  to  be  officers  of  justice.  The  councils  ap- 
pointed by  Yoritomo  at  Kamakura  possessed  in  real- 
ity the  power  of  the  government.  The  old  Dajokan 
and  the  ministers  and  councils  working  under  him, 
remained  in  the  imperial  capital  Kioto,  but  their 
offices  were  merely  titular.  They  no  longer  possessed 
real  practical  power.  In  1192  Go-Toba  Tenno  sent 
an  embassy  to  Yoritomo  which  appointed  him  Shogun, 
i.e.  commander-in-chief.      Thence  comes  the  term, 


Shogunate  of  Kamakura.  As  Shogun,  Yoritomo  was 
the  sole  head  of  the  government.  He  levied  taxes, 
and  was  especially  careful  to  collect  those  due  for  the 
army,  and  paid  his  soldiers.  He  rewarded  those  who 
had  been  loyal  to  him  with  large  grants  of  land.  He 
was  respectful  to  the  Emperor  and  formally  recog- 
nised him  as  the  actual  ruler.  In  reality  the  sovereign 
did  not  possess  the  slightest  power  in  the  country> 
and  exercised  no  influence  on  Yoritomo's  government. 
The  foundation  of  the  Shogunate  was  not  a  mere 
chance  or  passing  event  in  the  historical  development 
of  Japan  nor  must  it  be  regarded  merely  as  the  act 
of  any  one  great  man  like  Yoritomo.  It  was  the 
result  of  a  long  evolution  which  marks  the  essen- 
tial character  of  the  Japanese  Empire,  the  evolution  of 
the  feudal  system  which  had  its  beginnings  in  the 
time  of  the  Fujiwara.  Yoritomo  owed  the  power  to 
acquire  so  independent  a  position  with  regard  to  the 
Emperor  and  the  government  of  the  state  entirely  to 
the  loyalty  of  his  vassals  who,  during  the  period  of 
persecution,  had  remained  faithful  to  him,  and  the 
powerful  position  of  great  families  like  the  Taira  and 
Minamoto  was  only  a  circumstance  in  the  evolution  of 
the  feudal  system.  In  the  course  of  the  last  centuries 
new  powers  had  arisen.  The  power  of  the  Emperor 
and  of  the  imperial  officials  was  wholly  abolished  by 
the  power  of  the  feudal  lords,  the  DaimiSs,  who  relied 
on  the  support  of  their  vassals,  the  Samurai,  whom  we 
may  already  call  knights.  The  actual  reins  of  govern- 
ment were  held  by  the  most  powerful  of  the  feudal 
lords,  the  Shogun. 



With  the  establishment  of  the  Shogunate  a  new 
epoch  of  Japanese  history  began,  just  as  the  great 
reforms  of  the  Taika  years  formed  another.  With  some 
breaks,  the  Shogunate  remained  the  prevailing  form 
of  government  until  quite  modern  times,  until  Japan 
came  into  closer  relations  with  Europe. 

Simultaneously  with  the  progress  and  change  due 
to  the  feudal  system  in  the  political  conditions  of 
Japan,  there  were  also  important  ethical  developments 
in  the  Japanese  nation  which  the  Japanese  call  "  Bus- 
hido"  (chivalry).  Bushido  is  of  fundamental  import- 
ance for  the  moral  outlook  ot  the  Japanese  nation, 
and  we  shall  often  have  to  speak  of  it  in  greater 

Yoritomo  understood  how  to  use  the  new  develop- 
ment for  his  own  aims.  He  possessed  great  organiz- 
ing and  administrative  talent,  and  succeeded  in 
founding  a  new  central  government  and  bringing  the 
whole  of  the  empire  under  its  sway.  But  side  by  side 
with  his  great  intellectual  gifts  and  his  energy,  he  had 
serious  faults  of  character.  Only  too  soon  he  showed 
himself  accessible  to  the  evil  influence  of  the  H5j5 
family  to  which  he  owed  his  life,  and  from  among 
whom  he  had  chosen  a  wife.  Through  them  he  per- 
secuted his  brave  brother,  Yoshitsune,  who  had  gained 
many  laurels  in  the  late  fighting  and  who  together 
with  his  friend  Benkei  is  still  celebrated  in  the  songs 
of  the  poets.  When  Yoshitsune  saw  that  his  brother 
had  designs  on  his  life,  he  fled,  and  raised  a  rebellion 
which  was  unsuccessful.  Finally  he  was  murdered  by 
a  great  noble  in  Mutsu.     Yoritomo  also  got  rid  of  his 


younger  brother  Noriyori,  and  so  through  his  own 
fault  the  supremacy  of  his  family  was  soon  ended  by 
the  very  persons  in  whom  he  had  put  his  trust. 

On  the  death  of  Yoritomo,  his  son  Yoriie  became 
Shogun.  After  four  years  his  grandfather,  Hojo 
Tokimasa,  banished  him,  and  then  had  him  murdered. 
His  brother  Sanetomo,  the  third  Shogun,  succumbed 
to  a  plot  of  Hojo  Yoshitoki,  the  son  of  Tokimasa. 
He  was  the  last  of  Yoritomo's  descendants.  But  the 
ruin  of  the  Minamoto  family,  through  the  establish- 
ment of  the  Shogunate  had  little  influence  on  the  new 
political  ordering  of  the  state. 



When  the  Minamoto  family  became  extinct  with  the 
murder  of  the  third  Shogun  by  Hojo  Yoshitoki,  the 
Hojo  family  could  not  at  once  gain  possession  of  the 
Shogunate,  as  they  were  not  of  noble  birth.  They 
had  originally  not  been  freemen,  and  had  only  won 
respect  in  military  service  with  great  nobles,  at  last 
with  the  Taira.  None  of  the  great  families  of  the 
nobility  would  have  recognised  a  Hojo  as  Shogun. 
Therefore  H5jo  Yoshitoki  first  summoned  a  one  year 
old  boy  of  the  Fujiwara  from  the  capital,  appointed  him 
Shogun,  and  conducted  the  government  for  him  under 
the  title  of  Shikken,  i.e.  deputy  of  the  commander-in- 

Go-Toba-Tenno,  the  deposed  Emperor,  disliked  the 
tyrannical  rule  of  the  Shikken,  and  decided  to  crush 
the  Hojo  family  by  means  of  his  son,  Juntoku-Tenno. 
For  that  purpose  Juntoku-Tennd  abdicated,  and  his 
son  Chukio-Tenno  ascended  the  throne. 

The  preparations  made  by  the  imperial  family  were 
betrayed  to  Hojo  Yoshitoki.     He  immediately  sent 


his  brother  and  his  son  with  an  army  against  the 
capital.  A  battle  with  the  troops  which  the  Emperor 
hurriedly  collected  ensued  and  resulted  in  their 
defeat.  Yoshitoki  deposed  Chukio-Tenno,  raised 
his  cousin  Go-Horikawa-Tenno  to  the  throne, 
and  sent  Go-Toba-Tenno,  the  instigator  of  the 
rebellion,  and  his  family,  into  exile.  He  placed  a 
permanent  garrison  in  the  capital  under  the  command 
of  a  Rokuhara-Tandai,  who  had  surveillance  over  the 
Emperor,  and  had  the  right  of  deciding  whether  an 
emperor  should  remain  on  the  throne  or  should 

Hojd  Yasutoki,  son  of  Yoshitoki,  and  also  his  son, 
Tokiyori,  had  prosperous  and  happy  reigns.  Yasutoki 
instituted  a  law  comprising  5 1  articles  relating  to  the 
new  order  of  knights.  It  was  called  Jdei-Shikimoku  ' 
after  the  Joei  year  (1232)  in  which  it  was  proclaimed. 
Tokiyori  made  an  imperial  prince  Shogun,  and  the 
innovation  had  the  result  that  for  the  future  the 
Sh5gunate  was  always  held  by  princes,  generally 

1  Shikimoku»i*w. 

Mongolian  Ship  Attacked  by  Japanese 

Face  p.  91] 



THE  most  important  event  in  the  reign  of  the  Shikken 
is  the  repulse  of  the  Mongolian  attacks  on  Japan. 

Mangkan,  king  of  the  Mongols,  grandson  of  the 
famous  Dshingiskhan  who  had  pillaged  eastern 
Europe  from  12 19  to  1225,  and  cousin  of  the  Bathu 
who  conquered  Russia,  and  penetrated  victoriously  as 
far  as  Liegnitz  in  Silesia  (1241),  ordered  his  brother 
Khubilai-khan  to  bring  China  under  his  sway. 
Khubilai-khan  succeeded  in  subduing  a  large  part  of 
China  and  Korea.  When  by  the  death  of  his 
brother,  he  became  lord  of  Mongolia  and  the 
conquered  territories,  he  made  Peking  his  capital, 
and  sent  ambassadors  to  Japan  to  demand  that  the 
Emperor  should  recognise  his  supremacy.  But  at  the 
instigation  of  the  Shikken  the  embassy  was  sent  back. 
Khubilai-khan  equipped  a  fleet  which  with  30,000 
men  sailed  the  sea  to  conquer  the  Japanese  islands. 
Hojo  Tokimune  prevented  them  from  landing,  and 
on  their  return  the  whole  fleet  was  destroyed  by  a 
storm.  In  order  to  protect  himself  from  further 
attacks,  Hoj5  Tokimune  fortified  the  bay  of  Hakata, 


which  was  the  chief  place  where  the  enemy  would 
land,  and  put  a  strong  garrison  there. 

In  1281,  in  the  reign  of  Go-Uda-Tenn5  (1274-1287), 
Kubilai-khan  again  sent  a  large  fleet  with  an  army 
100,000  men  strong  to  Japan,  but  the  cleverness 
of  Hojo  Tokimune  and  the  courage  of  the  Japanese 
warriors  enabled  them  to  repel  the  attack  and  the 
hostile  fleet  was  again  destroyed  by  a  storm  on  their 
return  voyage.  Only  a  few  of  the  Mongols  were 
saved  and  returned  home.  That  was  the  last  time 
that  a  foreign  foe  attempted  to  conquer  Japan. 

The  war,  however,  for  the  first  time,  gave  opportunity 
lO  a  European,  the  Venetian  traveller,  Marco  Polo, 
who  was  then  living  at  the  Court  of  Kubilai-khan,  to 
learn  something  about  Japan,  and  he  published  the 
result  of  his  studies  in  his  travels  as  an  account  of 



The  disturbances  during  the  time  of  the  Taira  and 
Minamoto  had  not  destroyed  the  beginnings  made  in 
art  and  learning  during  the  Nara  and  Fujiwara  time. 
They  found  no  place,  however,  among  the  knightly 
order.  The  knights  cared  only  for  fighting,  and  spent 
times  of  peace  in  military  exercises,  tournaments, 
wrestling,  shooting  with  the  bow,  etc.  If  the  young 
Samurai  learnt  to  read,  he  confined  his  reading  to 
tales  of  the  heroic  deeds  of  his  ancestors. 

But  a  very  different  life  prevailed  at  the  imperial 
court.  Shut  out  entirely  from  political  and  military 
activities,  there  was  leisure  for  the  encouragement  of 
learning  and  especially  of  poetry.  Japan  reckons  as 
its  best  poets,  Go-Toba-Tenno,  Juntoko-Tenno, 
Fujiwara  Shunzei  and  his  son  Fujiwara  Teika, 
Fujiwara  Ietaka  and  the  Buddhist  priest,  Saigio. 

The  Buddhist  priests  had  great  importance  in  the 
development  of  Japanese  culture.  For  Buddhism 
had  just  entered  on  a  new  epoch.  Hitherto  that 
religion  had,  on  account  of  its  philosophical  character, 


been  confined  to  the  educated  class,  for  it  was  too 
difficult  for  the  unlearned  to  understand.  Buddhism 
was  first  made  accessible  to  the  common  people, 
through  the  sects  which  practiced  a  wide  tolerance, 
took  heed  of  the  needs  of  the  people,  and  understood 
how  to  make  their  teaching  comprehended  by  all. 
They  have  already  been  mentioned  as  the  Tendai-Shu 
and  Shingon-Shu.  The  following  are  the  most 
important  of  the  later  sects.  The  priest,  Honen- 
Shonin,  founded  the  JddS-shu.1  The  chief  doctrine 
of  that  sect  was  that  salvation  could  only  be  obtained 
by  the  grace  of  Buddha  and  that  men  must  un- 
ceasingly pray :  "  Namu  amida  butsu,"  i.e.  "  I  trust 
in  Buddha."  Shinran-Shonin,  the  pupil  of  Honen- 
Sh5nin,  founded  the  Shin-shu.  That  sect  permitted 
marriage  and  the  eating  of  meat.  Nichiren-Shonin 
founded  a  sect  which  bore  the  name  Nichiren-Shu 
after  him,  or  Hokke-Shu  after  his  teaching.  Contrary 
to  the  "Namu  amida  butsu,"  of  the  Jod5-Shu,  he 
taught  the  prayer:  "Namu  mio  horen  gekio,"  i.e. 
"I  trust  in  the  beautiful  Hokekio."  Hokekio  is 
according  to  Nichiren  the  classic  book  of  Buddha's 

Through  these  sects  Buddhism  not  only  became 
extremely  powerful  in  Japan  and  the  prevailing 
religion,  but  it  led  also  to  the  secular  progress  of  the 
land.  Buddhist  priests  occupied  themselves  more 
than  formerly  with  secular  tasks,  poetry,  the  arts  and 
learning.     Saigio,  for  example,  was  a  famous  poet. 

1  Jodo=the  kingdom  of  God.     Shu  =  sect. 


Art-loving  Buddhist  priests  encouraged  the  painters, 
Tosa  Mitsunaga  and  Fujiwara  Nobuzane,  and  the 
carvers,  Unkei  and  Tankei  to  produce  their  famous 
works  which  were  mostly  destined  to  adorn  Buddhist 

The  manufacture  of  pottery,  especially,  made  pro- 
gress among  the  people. 



Go-Saga-Tenno  (1242- i 246)  preferred  his  younger 
son  to  the  elder  who  had  already  ascended  the  throne 
as  Go-Fukakusa-Tenno  (1246-1259);  he  compelled 
Go-Fukakusa-Tenno  to  abdicate,  and  the  younger  son 
became  Emperor  with  the  name  Kameyana-Tenno 
(1 259-1 274).  And  Go-Saga-Tenno  determined  that 
the  Imperial  dignity  should  remain  for  ever  in  the 
Kameyana  family.  Therefore  Go-Fukakusa-Tenn5 
allied  himself  with  the  Shikken,  Hojo  Tokimune,  and 
with  his  aid,  after  the  death  of  Go-Saga-Tenno,  placed 
his  son  on  the  throne  as  Fushimi-Tenno  (1287- 1298), 
and  deposed  his  younger  brother.  Sadatoki,  son  of 
Hojo  Tokimune,  at  first  attached  himself  to  the  line 
of  the  elder  brother,  and  placed  the  son  of  Fushimi- 
Tenno  on  the  throne  as  Go-Fushimi-Tenno  (1298- 
1301).  But  in  consequence  of  the  continual  complaints 
of  Go-Uda-Tenno  (1274- 1287),  who  had  abdicated, 
about  the  violation  of  his  grandfather's  will,  he  deter- 
mined later  that  in  future  each  line  should  reign 
alternately.     The  chief  branch  of  the  elder  brother, 


Go-Fukakusa-Tenno,  was  henceforth  called  Ji-mio-in, 
for  after  his  abdication  he  lived  at  Ji-mio-in  ;  the 
chief  branch  of  the  younger  was  called  Daigagu-ji 
after  the  temple  of  Daigagu-ji  which  it  had  made  its 

The  Shikken,  Hojo  Takatoki,  the  son  of  Sadatoki, 
led  a  dissipated  and  extravagant  life  and  practised 
great  cruelties.  And  so  all  the  people  hated  him,  and 
desired  that  he  should  be  removed.  The  reigning 
Emperor,  Go-Daigo-Tenno  (13 18-1339),  who  belonged 
to  the  Daigagu-ji  branch,  thought  the  opportunity 
had  come  to  free  himself  from  the  Shikken's  authority, 
and  to  put  an  end  to  the  Shogunate  for  ever.  But 
his  plan  became  known  to  the  Shikken  who  in  1331 
sent  a  large  army  against  the  capital.  The  imperial 
army  succumbed.  The  Emperor  was  taken  prisoner 
as  he  fled,  and  banished  to  the  island  of  Oki.  The 
Shikken  chose  the  new  Emperor,  Kogon-Tenno,  from 
the  other  branch. 

The  war  roused  public  opinion,  and  a  strong  imperial 
party  came  into  being,  the  object  of  which  was  the 
fall  of  the  Shikken.  As  adherents  of  the  Emperor 
may  be  mentioned  :  Kusunoki  Masashige,  Akamatsu 
Norimura,  Nawa  Nagatoshi,  and  the  Nitta  and 
Ashikaga  families  who  were  both  descended  from 
the  Minamoto  family.  Nitta  Yoshisada  collected 
troops  in  his  province  of  Kozuke  and  marched  to 
Kamakura.  During  the  siege,  Hojo  Takatoki  and 
his  whole  family  and  his  adherents  took  refuge  in  a 
temple  where  they  all,  about  200  in  number,  committed 
suicide.     Meanwhile  Go-Daigo-Tenno  had   returned 



from  the  island  of  Oki.  Nawa  Nagatoshi  had  assembled 
troops  for  him  in  the  province  of  Hold,  and  with  them 
he  began  to  conquer  the  neighbouring  provinces. 
Kusunoki  Masashige  led  a  rebellion  in  support  of  Go- 
Daigo-Tenno  in  the  province  of  Kawachi  which  was 
situated  near  the  capital.  Ashikagu  Takauji,  another 
adherent  of  Go-Daigo-Tenno,  a  few  weeks  after  the 
fall  of  the  Hojo  family,  succeeded  in  taking  possession 
of  the  capital.  After  Go-Daigo-Tenno  and  his  sup- 
porters had  marched  into  the  capital,  Kogon-Tenno 
who  owed  his  crown  to  Hoj5-Takatoki,  abdicated, 
and  left  the  throne  to  Go-Daigo-Tenno  who  was  now 
actually  in  sole  possession  of  the  government  (1333). 

But  the  Emperor  only  enjoyed  for  a  brief  space  the 
independence  of  which  for  the  last  150  years,  the 
throne  had  been  deprived  by  the  Shogunate. 





After  his  entry  into  the  capital,  Go-Daigo-Tenn6 
ruled  the  whole  Empire  himself.  He  gave  the  command 
of  the  army  to  Prince  Morinaga,  appointed  Prince 
Norinaga,  governor  of  the  north,  and  Prince 
Narinaga,  who  had  hitherto  been  Shogun  in  Kamakura, 
governor  of  the  city  and  of  the  plain  of  Kanto.  The 
position  of  the  old  imperial  officials  like  the  Dajokan, 
and  his  subordinate  ministers  who  under  the  Shogunate 
had  sunk  into  entire  insignificance,  was  now  improved 
although  they  never  regained  their  former  importance, 
as  the  Emperor  appointed  new  officials  and  gave 
them  the  actual  power.  These  changes  in  the  govern- 
ment were  known  as  the  reforms  of  the  Kemmu  year. 
Only  a  portion  of  the  men  who  had  distinguished 
themselves  in  the  war  received  great  rewards.  Many 
went  unrewarded,  while  many  court  favourites 
received  gifts  beyond  their  deserts.  Complaints 
soon  arose  in  the  army  about  the  conferring  of  dis- 
tinctions. The  ill-feeling  increased  the  more  it  was 
recognised  that  under  the  imperial  government  the 
military  element  lost  the  importance  it  had  had 
under  the  Shogunate,  and  the  more  the  imperial 
civil   officials   and  the   courtiers   triumphed  over  it. 


The  people,  too,  were  infected  by  the  discontent,  for 
in  spite  of  the  heavy  taxes  which  oppressed  them 
as  a  result  of  the  war,  the  Emperor  built  new  palaces 
and  kept  an  extravagant  court.  Nearly  everyone 
began  to  long  for  the  former  government. 

Ashikaga  Takauji  desired  to  make  use  of  the 
discontent  to  restore  the  Shogunate  government  in 
favour  of  his  family.  Prince  Morinaga  was  clever 
enough  to  scent  out  the  plan,  told  the  Emperor  of  his 
fears,  and  tried  to  make  it  of  no. avail.  But  Ashikaga 
slandered  him  to  the  Emperor,  and  effected  his  banish- 
ment to  Kamakura  where  he  had  him  murdered. 

When  H5jo  Tokiyuki,  the  only  Hojo  who  at  the 
destruction  of  the  family  was  saved  by  a  servant, 
raised  a  rebellion  in  Kamakura,  he  seized  the 
opportunity  to  obtain  the  command  of  the  army  from 
the  Emperor  with  the  order  to  suppress  the  rebels. 
He  increased  his  army  by  recruiting  a  large  number 
of  malcontents  who  were  ready  to  rebel  against  the 
imperial  rule.  After  defeating  Hojo,  he  publicly  put 
himself  in  opposition  to  the  Emperor. 

The  Emperor  ordered  Nitta  Yoshisada  to  subdue 
him.  But  after  several  battles  in  the  mountains  of 
Hakone,  Nitta's  army  was  destroyed,  and  Nitta 
himself  fled  with  what  remained  of  it  to  Kioto.  Then 
Akamatsu  Norimura  who  was  also  dissatisfied  with 
the  Imperial  government  went  over  to  Ashikaga  with 
a  large  body  of  troops,  and  they  took  the  capital. 
Go-Daigo-Tenno  fled  to  the  temple  on  the  hill  of  Hiei. 
Meanwhile  Nitta  Yoshisada  had  assembled  a  fresh 
band  of  combatants  among  the  Emperor's  adherents, 


and  hurried  secretly  with  them  to  the  capital,  attacked 
Ashikaga's  army,  put  it  to  flight,  and  recaptured  the 
town  for  the  Emperor  who  was  able  to  return  again, 
but  only  for  a  short  time. 

Ashikaga  fled  to  the  island  of  Kiusu  and  began 
there,  supported  by  the  authority  of  Kogon-Tenno 
(of  the  other  imperial  branch),  to  collect  fresh  troops 
in  order  to  march  again  on  the  capital.  His  friend 
Akamatsu  attacked  the  imperial  troops  led  by  Nitta 
Yoshisada,  which  had  pursued  Ashikaga  to  Kiusiu, 
and  were  here  entirely  destroyed,  and  kept  them 
fighting  until  Ashikaga  had  collected  his  new  army, 
and  made  an  attack  on  the  imperial  capital.  When 
Nitta  received  the  news  of  Ashikaga's  march  on 
Kioto,  he  took  up  an  advantageous  position  near  the 
village  of  Hi5go,  and  there  awaited  the  hostile  army. 
Ashikaga  now  joined  with  Akamatsu,  and  soon  after, 
near  Hiogo,  with  his  brother  who  had  hastened  from 
Kiusiu  with  a  fleet.  A  fierce  battle  took  place  at 
Hiogo  in  which  the  imperial  army  was  defeated. 
The  imperial  commander,  Kusunoki  Masashigej 
killed  himself  during  the  fight.  Nitta  Yoshisada 
fled  back  into  the  capital  which  was  soon 
besieged  by  the  enemy.  Go-Daigo-Tenno  again 
took  refuge  in  the  temple  on  the  hill  of  Hiei,  and 
Nitta  Yoshisada  escaped  to  the  north  with  the  crown 
prince  and  the  other  princes.  Ashikaga  took 
possession  of  the  capital,  and  placed  a  prince  of  the 
other  imperial  line,  Komio-Tenno  1  on  the  throne 

1  He  was  a  brother  of  Kogon-Tenno. 



FROM  the  temple  on  the  hill  of  Hiei,  Go-Daigo-Tenno 
fled  to  the  province  of  Yamato,  south  of  the  capital, 
and  lived  there  in  the  village  of  Yoshino.  There 
were  again  two  Emperors  in  Japan,  a  dynasty  of  the 
north  and  a  dynasty  of  the  south.  The  imperial 
insignia  was  in  possession  of  the  dynasty  of  the 
south,  and  it  was  therefore  regarded  as  the  rightful 
imperial  line.  If  its  dominions  only  included  a  small 
part  of  the  empire,  it  possessed  much  sympathy  in 
the  land  of  the  opposing  dynasty,  and  numbered  the 
best  men  of  the  Empire  among  its  adherents.  The 
division  lasted  for  56  years  and  during  that  time, 
three  Emperors  of  the  southern,  and  five  of  the 
northern  dynasty  reigned.  The  whole  period  was  one 
of  fighting  between  the  two  families,  and  actual 
war  prevailed  for  20  years  without  a  break. 

In  1349,  Ashikaga,  who  then  possessed  the  real 
governing  power  in  the  Empire  of  the  northern 
dynasty,  commanded  his  general,  Kono  Moronao,  to 
march  with  the  whole  army  against  the  southern 
dynasty.     Kusunoki  Masatsura  (son  of  the  Kusunoki 


Masashige  who  had  committed  suicide  at  the  decisive 
defeat  of  the  rightful  Emperor),  who  like  his  father 
remained  faithful  to  his  imperial  house,  marched  out 
with  all  his  adherents  to  attack  him  in  the  field  of 
Shijonawate.  A  battle  ensued  in  which  despite  their 
courage  the  adherents  of  the  rightful  line  were  defeated. 
Kusunoki  Masatsura  and  his  whole  family  committed 
suicide.  Kono  Moronao  attacked  the  imperial 
palace,  and  Go-Murakami-Tenno,  son  of  Go-Daigo- 
Tenn5  had  to  flee  farther  to  the  south.  His  former 
palace  was  razed  to  the  ground.  Tenno  was  not 
pursued  farther,  for  the  valley  in  which  he  had  taken 
refuge  was  surrounded  by  mountains,  the  passes  of 
which  could  be  easily  defended,  and  so  Go-Murakami- 
Tenno  made  Kano  in  that  district  his  place  of 

But  soon  the  victorious  northern  dynasty  was 
weakened  by  the  numerous  rebellions  in  their  kingdom. 
All  the  Daimios  who  were  striving  for  independence 
used  these  divisions  in  the  reigning  family  to  gain 
their  independence.  They  left  the  northern  dynasty 
under  the  pretext  that  they  only  dared  to  obey  the 
rightful  Emperor,  and  supported  by  their  Samurai 
vassals,  they  attained  absolute  independence.  There 
were  innumerable  struggles  between  the  different 
Daimios  since  each  sought  to  extend  his  possessions, 
and  universal  anarchy  prevailed  in  the  land.  Those 
disturbances  were  the  harbingers  of  the  later  hundred 
years'  war. 

Amid  the  confusion,  Ashikaga  Takauji  obtained 
the  consent  of  the  northern  dynasty  to  the  restoration 


of  the  ShSgunate.  Following  the  example  of  the 
former  ShSgunate  of  Kamakura,  he  placed  new 
Shogunate  councils  at  Kioto.  It  was  hoped  that  the 
councils  which  differed  from  the  imperial  civil  service 
through  their  military  authority,  would  be  able  to 
restore  order. 

The  Shogun,  Ashikaga  Takauji  and  his  son  who 
succeeded  him  in  the  office,  again  took  up  the  struggle 
against  the  southern  dynasty.  But  as  it  was  impos- 
sible to  carry  on  the  war,  and  at  the  same  time  to 
introduce  improvements  into  the  domestic  affairs  of 
the  Empire,  the  third  Shogun  Yoshimitsu  (1368-1394) 
thought  it  wiser  to  make  peace  with  the  southern 
dynasty.  In  1392  an  embassy  of  the  Shogun  con- 
ducted Go-Kameyama-Tenno,  the  Emperor  of  the 
southern  dynasty  to  Kioto  where  a  reconciliation 
between  him  and  Go-Komatsu-Tenno,  the  Emperor 
of  the  northern  dynasty,  took  place.  Go-Kameyama- 
Tenno  abdicated,  and  delivered  over  the  imperial 
insignia  to  Go-Komatsu-Tenno.  Therefore  he  recog- 
nized him  as  father,  and  the  whole  Empire  was  again 
united  under  one  dynasty. 





At  first  the  new  Shoguns  had  a  very  difficult  position. 
They  were  very  far  from  actually  governing  the 
whole  Empire.  The  numerous  rebellions  of  the 
nobles  in  the  land  stood  in  the  way,  as  well  as  the 
pride  and  arrogance  of  those  who  were  second  in 
command  whom  they  were  obliged  to  pay  very  highly 
for  their  services,  and  who,  notwithstanding,  often 
refused  to  carry  out  their  orders.  Yoshimitsu,  the 
third  Shogun,  was  the  first  who  made  his  influence 
felt  throughout  the  land  after  the  peace  with  the 
southern  dynasty  left  him  free  to  deal  with  internal 
disorders.  He  found  strong  support  in  Hosokawa 
Yoriyuki,  one  of  the  great  nobles.  With  his  help  he 
put  down  the  powerful  family,  Yamana  Ujikiyo,  who 
owned  the  sixth  part  of  the  whole  empire. 

After  Yoshimitsu  had  made  the  Shogunate  fairly 
universally  recognised  in  the  Empire,  he  erected  in  a 
street  of  Kioto,  Muromachi,  new  and  splendid  govern- 
ment offices  for  the  Shogunate,  which  for  that  reason 
was  from  that  time  known  as  the  u  Shogunate  of 
Muramachi."     The  chief  official  under  the  Shogun 


was  the  Kanrio,  who  although  he  possessed  great 
power,  did  not  gain  so  important  a  position  as  the 
Shikken  had  formerly  had,  for  three  rival  families 
laid  claim  to  the  office  of  Kanrio.  These  families 
were  the  Shiba,  Hosokawa  and  Hatakeyama,  and 
they  were  known  as  the  three  Kanrio  families.  The 
rest  of  the  officials  were  the  same  as  those  of  the 
Shogunate  of  Kamakura. 

The  district  of  Kamakura  had  now  a  certain  im- 
portance of  its  own,  for  the  first  Shogun  had  estab- 
lished there  a  subordinate  government  for  the  family 
of  his  second  son.  The  heads  of  that  government 
were  called  Kamakura-Kanri5  or  Kanto-Kanrio. 

Yoshimitsu  provided  for  the  fortification  of  the 
frontiers  on  the  north  and  south.  Instead  of  the 
usual  governors  he  appointed  Tandai  in  the  frontier 
provinces  who  possessed  special  military  authority. 
The  administration  of  the  other  provinces  lay,  as 
under  the  Shogunate  of  Kamakura,  in  the  hands  of 

When  Yoshimitsu  became  old,  he  abdicated,  and 
was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Yoshimochi.  Yoshimitsu 
built  himself  a  magnificent  palace  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  capital  on  the  Kitayama,1  called  Kinkaku, 
(i.e.  golden,  many-storied  building).  As  "  Lord  of 
Kitayama "  he  lived  in  great  splendour,  and  as  was 
the  custom  of  the  Emperor  after  his  abdication,  never 
showed  himself  in  public  unless  accompanied  by  a 
brilliant  train  of  followers.  He  treated  the  imperial 
court  officials   as   his   servants.      The   Shogun   also 

1  Kita = north  :   Yama = hill. 


adopted  a  similar  luxurious  way  of  living, 
resulted  that  the  Shogun  families,  like  the  Fujiwara 
family  of  an  earlier  date,  degenerated  through  luxury 
and  dissipation  so  that  the  administration  of  govern- 
ment and  the  real  power  passed  into  the  hands  of  the 



The  eighth  Shogun,  Yoshimasa  (1449- 1472),  led  a 
profligate  and  extravagant  life,  and  cared  little  about 
administering  the  state.  The  disorder  that  resulted 
in  the  Empire  encouraged  the  ambitious  and  power- 
ful general,  Yamana  Sozen,  to  attempt  to  gain  a  more 
important  position  for  himself.  With  the  concurrence 
of  the  Shogun,  he  began  war  on  the  wealthy  and 
powerful  family,  Akamatsu,  in  1441  ;  he  defeated  them 
and  enriched  himself  with  their  possessions.  After 
this  good  fortune  he  ventured  to  oppose  the  Kanrio 
Hosokawa  Katsumoto.  He  managed  to  make  him- 
self agreeable  to  the  Shogun's  wife  so  that  he  was 
appointed  guardian  of  her  son  who  was  a  minor,  and 
endeavoured  to  make  him  the  future  Sh5gun,  although 
Shogun  Yoshimasa  had  expressly  determined  that 
his  own  brother  whose  guardian  was  the  Kanrio, 
Hosokawa  Katsumoto,  should  be  the  next  Shogun. 
The  cause  which  was  to  turn  the  strained  relations 
between  Yamana  Sozen  and  Hosokawa  Katsumoto 
into  open  war  was  not  long  in  arising. 


At  the  same  time  a  bitter  quarrel  raged  between 
the  members  of  the  Kanri5  family,  Shiba,  and  the 
members  of  the  KanriS  family,  Hatakeyama,  as  to 
which  of  the  families  was  to  be  the  future  Kanrio. 
In  1467,  the  first  of  the  Onin  years,  it  came  to  open 
war  with  the  Hatakeyama  family.  When  the  KanriS 
interfered  in  the  struggle  and  declared  himself  on 
the  side  of  one  of  the  rival  parties,  Yamana  SSzen 
put  himself  and  all  his  power  on  the  side  of  the 
other.  Then  the  two  parties  of  the  Shiba  family 
joined  in  the  strife,  one  taking  the  side  of  the  KanriS, 
the  other  of  Yamana  Sozen.  And  so  the  whole 
army  and  the  whole  land  were  involved  in  a  civil  war 
which  lasted  ten  years. 

During  the  struggle,  the  capital  was  repeatedly 
set  on  fire.  The  fine  temples  and  palaces  were 
destroyed,  and  with  them  magnificent  works  of  art 
and  valuable  manuscripts.  The  two  generals,  KanriS 
and  Yamana  Sozen,  died  in  the  course  of  the 
war,  which  only  ended  because  the  strength  of  both 
sides  was  utterly  exhausted. 

A  still  bloodier  civil  war  raged  in  the  district 
of  Kamakura. 

The  Kamakura  KanriS  had,  as  time  went  on,  be- 
come more  powerful  and  arrogant.  He  claimed  the 
same  honours  as  those  enjoyed  by  the  ShSgun. 
Mochiuji,  the  greatgrandson  of  the  first  KantS 
KanriS,  resisted  the  orders  of  the  ShSgunate,  and 
made  a  plan  to  throw  off  the  supremacy  of  the 
capital,  KiSto.  When  Uesugi  Norizane,  one  of  his 
nobles,  warned  him  of  the  danger  of  such  an  attempt, 



he  threatened  him  with  death.  Uesugi  Norizane 
then  revealed  the  plot  of  the  insurrection  to  the 
Shogun.  The  Shogun  sent  a  large  army  against 
Mochiuji  which  he  was  unable  to  withstand.  He 
was  defeated  in  the  first  battle  and  then  committed 
suicide  (1439). 

The  Onin  war  now  followed,  into  which  Kamakura 
and  its  district  was  also  drawn. 

After  a  long  struggle,  Uesugi  Noritada,  the  son  of 
Norizane,  although  he  had  himself  held  the  office  of 
a  Kanto  Kanrio,  and  had  won  some  power  for  his 
family  during  the  disorders,  finally  appointed 
Shigeuji,  the  son  of  Mochiuji,  as  Kanto  Kanrio. 
But  he  cherished  a  distrust  of  his  benefactor  who 
had  been  responsible  for  his  father's  fall,  and  had 
him  murdered,  a  deed  which  resulted  in  fresh 
violent  struggles.  The  Uesugi  family  summoned 
their  vassals  and  adherents  against  Shigeuji.  He 
could  not  withstand  their  attacks ;  he  fled  to  the 
province  of  Shimosa  and  lived  there  at  Koga  where 
he  built  himself  a  small  palace.  He  was  thenceforth 
called  Koga  Kubo.  The  Uesugi  family  now  ap- 
pointed Masatomo,  brother  of  the  8th  Shdgun, 
Yoshimasa,  Kanto  Kanrio,  so  that  there  were  two 
rulers.  The  situation  was  made  more  complicated 
through  the  quarrel  which  broke  out  in  the  Uesugi 
family  itself.  It  divided  into  two  parties  which 
fought  against  each  other.  One  of  them  which  was 
hostile  to  the  new  Kanto  Kanrid,  besieged  the  capital, 
Kamakura,  and  prevented  the  Kanrio  from  taking 
up   his   residence   there.      He  therefore   set   up   his 


dwelling  place  at  Horigoe  in  the  province  of  Izu,  and 
was  thenceforth  called  Horigoe  Kubo.  After  a  while 
he  was  murdered  there  by  his  eldest  son,  because  he 
preferred  his  younger  son. 

These  disorders  only  ended  when  a  distinguished 
man,  Ise  Naganji,  (or  Hojo  Soun)  came  to  the 
province  of  Izu.  He  defeated  Masatomo's  undutiful 
son  and  conquered  the  province  of  Izu  and  its 
neighbourhood,  and  as  we  shall  see  later,  his  family 
gained  all  the  districts  belonging  to  Kamakura. 



YOSHIMASA,  the  8th  Shogun,  abdicated  in  order  to 
give  himself  up  to  the  extravagant  life  of  pleasure, 
which  he  preferred  to  the  serious  business  of  govern- 
ment. He  took  up  his  residence  in  Higashiyama, 
in  the  eastern  quarter  of  the  capital,  Ki5to,  where  he 
kept  a  court  of  great  magnificence,  the  brilliance  of 
which  was  long  remembeied  in  the  whole  empire, 
and  gave  a  name  to  the  period.  Yoshimasa  built 
there  a  two-storied  palace  called  Ginkaku.3  He 
adorned  the  interior  with  manuscripts  of  songs 
artistically  written,  paintings  and  other  objects  of 
art,  and  there,  among  other  things,  the  ceremonial 
tea-drinking  took  place.  The  extravagance  of  the 
court  put  a  great  strain  on  the  financial  resources  of 
the  country,  and  increased  the  people's  burden  of 
taxation.  But  nevertheless,  the  Ashikaga,  despite 
their  extravagant  leanings,  had  their  merits.  They 
were  warm   patrons  of  the   revival   of  the  arts  that 

1  Higashi  =  east,  Yama=hill  or  mountain. 
*  i.e.  the  silver,  several  storied  building. 


took  place  at  this  time,  strengthened  the  relations 
with  China  again,  and  in  so  doing  especially  con- 
sidered the  financial  advantages  to  themselves. 

Among  the  famous  painters  of  this  period,  Sesshu, 
Kano-Masanobu,  and  his  son  Monotobu,  deserve 
mention.  Monotobu  was  the  founder  of  a  school  of 
which  the  aim  was  to  make  a  compromise  between 
Chinese  and  Japanese  painting. 

Chinese  porcelain  was  also  again  introduced  into 
Japan  at  this  time ;  since  its  former  alliance  with 
Japan,  China  had  made  great  progress  in  that  branch 
of  manufacture.  Artistic  smith's  work  also  flourished 
then  in  Japan  ;  a  well-known  artist  of  that  kind  was 
Got5  Yuj5. 

A  new  epoch  began  in  architecture,  for  houses  were 
built  without  windows.  They  had  wooden  outer  walls, 
the  panels  of  which  could  be  removed,  and  were  only 
fixed  in  at  night ;  but  in  the  day-time  doors  were  ar- 
ranged made  of  paper  resembling  glass  which  let  in 
air  and  light. 

Among  the  poets  of  the  period,  the  song  writers 
Fujiwara  Kanera  and  Ota  D6kan  must  be  named. 
Ota  D5kan  is  one  of  the  few  poets  of  the  order  of 

Learning  was  confined  almost  entirely  to  the  Budd- 
hist priests  ;  outside  their  ranks  only  the  library  of 
Kanazawa  and  the  school  of  Ashikaga  had  any  im- 


THE   HEROIC  AGE  (1478-1573) 

THE  settlement  of  the  war  of  the  Onin  years  and  of 
the  struggle  for  the  supremacy  of  Kamakura,  brought 
Japan  no  lasting  peace.  On  the  contrary,  those 
struggles  only  formed  the  prelude  to  the  bloody 
"  Hundred  Years'  War."  For  the  space  of  a  hundred 
years,  every  part  of  the  empire  was  torn  by  various 
struggles  and  feuds.  It  was  a  time  when  individual 
ability  alone  decided  the  issue.  He  who  yesterday 
was  merely  one  of  the  retinue  of  a  great  man,  was  to- 
day himself  the  ruler.  It  was  the  heroic  age  of  Japan, 
a  time  of  great  deeds  of  brave  knights.  Four 
Emperors  reigned  during  the  hundred  years'  war :  Go- 
Tsuchimikado-Tenno  (1464-1500);  Go-Kashiwahara- 
Tenno  (1500-1526);  Go-Nara-Tenn5  (1526-1557); 
and  Ogimachi-Tenno  (1557-1587).  EUmngthe  period — 
the  families  of  the  military  nobility  that  had  had  the 
upper  hand  were  almost  annihilated,  especially  the 
Ashikaga  family  which  had  formerly  been  in  posses- 
sion of  the  Shogunate. 

Let  us  now  consider  the  fate  of  the  central  power 
during  these  struggles. 


The  Shogun,  Ashikaga  Yoshitane,  was  banished  by 
his  Kanrio  Hosokawa  Masamoto.  When  a  quarrel 
arose  in  the  Hosokawa  family,  Ouchi  Yoshioki,  a  great 
noble,  who  had  remained  faithful  to  the  Shogun,  suc- 
ceeded in  bringing  him  back  to  the  capital,  and  in 
deposing  the  Shogun,  Yoshigumi,  set  up  by  the 
Hosokawa  family.  Ashikaga  Yoshitane  remained  in 
possession  of  the  Sh5gunate  for  thirteen  years  while 
Ouchi  Yoshioki  occupied  a  position  in  regard  to  him 
similar  to  that  held  formerly  by  the  Shogun  to  the 

When  after  ten  years  Ouchi  Yoshioki  retired  from 
office  and  returned  home,  the  Hosokawa  family  again 
came  into  prominence ;  it  appropriated  the  office  of  a 
Kanri5  and  deposed  the  Shogun,  Ashikaga  Yoshitane. 
His  nephew,  Ashikaga  Yoshiharu,  was  now  appointed 
1 2th  Shogun.  Under  his  reign  strife  once  more 
broke  out  in  the  Hosokawa  Kanrio  family.  Miyoshi 
Chokei,  one  of  their  vassals,  attained  great  power 
during  the  strife,  and  became  the  real  leader  of  the 
Kanrio  office,  and  was  in  regard  to  the  Kanrio,  as  the 
Kanrio  to  the  Shogun  and  the  Shogun  to  the  Em- 
peror. Miyoshi  Chokei  was  even  able  to  depose  the 
Shogun,  and  make  his  son,  Yoshiteru,  Shogun. 

After  the  death  of  Miyoshi  Chokei.  his  vassal,  Mat- 
sunaga  Hisahide,  came  into  possession  of  the  real 
power,  so  that  the  noble  families  were  dependent  on 
their  subordinates.  Finally  Matsunaga  Hisahide 
murdered  the  Shogun,  Ashikaga  Yoshiteru,  and  ap- 
pointed his  cousin,  Ashikaga  Yoshihide,  Shogun. 

After  his  death  Ashikaga  Yoshiaki  was  appointed 


Shogun  by  Oda  Nobunaga,  a  knight  who  had  at- 
tained power  through  the  struggles  of  the  time.  The 
Shogun  tried  to  acquire  independence,  and  to  free 
himself  from  the  guardianship  of  Oda  Nobunaga.  But 
Oda  Nobunaga  who  held  the  actual  power,  deposed 
him,  and  sent  him  into  exile.  And  therewith  ended 
the  Shogunate  of  the  Ashikaga  family  (1573).  For 
the  next  thirty  years  there  was  as  a  rule  no  Sho- 

Nevertheless,  the  imperial  family  remained  in  their 
old  insignificant  position.  It  had  suffered  as  greatly 
as  the  Shogunate  in  the  disorders.  ^Already  in.  the 
struggles  of  the  Onin  years  the  central  government 
had  not  been  able  to  ensure  the  regular  collection  of  the 
taxes,  and  the  Emperor  fell  into  serious  financial  diffi- 
culties. The  imperial  palace  was  not  kept  in  proper 
repair,  the  walls  fell  down,  and  the  place  that  had 
hitherto  been  concealed  from  the  sight  of  the  people 
like  a  sanctuary,  became  accessible  to  all.  As  there 
was  no  longer  feasting  at  court,  the  courtiers  and  high 
dignitaries  wandered  through  the  land  and  sought 
employment  and  shelter  with  the  great  nobles.  When 
Go-Tsuchimikado-Tenno  died,  his  family  had  not 
money  enough  to  bury  him,  and  were  obliged  to 
borrow  the  necessary  funds  from  the  military  terri- 
torial nobility.  His  son,  Go-Kashiwahara-Tenn5, 
could  only  defray  the  cost  of  the  ceremonies  connected 
with  his  accession  by  money  supplied  by  the  Buddhist 
priests.  His  son,  Go-Nara  Tenno,  likewise,  could 
only  celebrate  his  accession  by  means  of  borrowed 
money.    In  order  to  provide  for  his  support,  he  had  to 


write  songs  for  pay.  As  the  purchasers  might  not 
look  on  the  Emperor  who  was  naturally  worshipped 
as  a  descendant  of  the  gods,  they  put  the  money  with 
the  commission  behind  a  curtain  of  the  palace,  and 
after  a  while  fetched  the  manuscript  away. 

The  real  power  of  the  government  was  not 
in  the^capital,  but  in  the  country  with  the  heroic 
Samurai  and  the  great  military  lords  who  had  risen 
up  during  the  struggles  that  had  destroyed  the  old 
families,  and  raised  up  new  ones. 

One  of  these  upstarts  was  H6j5  S5un  or  Ise 
Naganji,  mentioned  above,  who  had  originally  been  a 
vagrant,  then  had  entered  the  service  of  a  DaimiS,  and 
finally  became  an  independent  general.  He  con- 
quered two  provinces,  Izu  (1491)  and  Sagami  (1495). 
His  son,  Ujitsuna,  overthrew  the  Oyumi  Kubo,  and 
extended  the  conquests  made  by  his  father  to  the 
provinces  of  Shim5sa,  Kazusa  and  Awa.  His  son 
Ujiyasu  overthrew  the  Koga  Kub5  and  gained  the 
provinces  of  Musashi,  Kozuke  and  Shimozuke. 
And  so  this  Hojo  family  which  was  not  related  to 
the  well-known  Shikken  Hoj5  family  attained 
supremacy  over  wide  domains  in  the  plain  of  KantO. 

In  the  province  of  Kai,  Takeda  Shingen  dis- 
tinguished himself  by  warlike  deeds.  He  conquered 
the  whole  of  the  province  of  which  his  father  had 
only  possessed  small  portions,  and  won  for  himself 
also  neighbouring  districts.  In  the  province  of 
Echigo  the  warlike  Uesugi  Kenshin  ruled  ;  he  pitted 
himself  against  Takeda  Shingen,  and  carried  on  a 
wearisome  war,  (1553- 1 564).     They  are  both  famous 


for  the  introduction  of  guns,  which  had  been  brought 
to  Japan  by  Portuguese  merchants  in  1543.  And 
the  Japanese  soon  left  off  using  bows  and  arrows, 
spears  and  swords.  . 

In  the  province  of  Mutsu,  Date  Masamune,  who 
had  formerly  been  the  vassal  of  a  Daimio,  rose  to 
power.  He  lived  in  the  town  of  Sendai.  He  is 
famous  for  sending  an  embassy  to  Philip  III.  of 
Spain,  and  to  Pope  Paul  V.  in  161 3. 

The  Togashi  family  took  the  ruling  place  in  the 
northern  provinces.  They  succumbed,  however,  in 
the  Shin-Shu,1  a  religious  war  that  broke  out  among 
the  Buddhists. 

The  families  Amako,  Ouchi  and  Mori  ruled  in  the 
west.  Ouchi  Yoshitaka  reigned  in  the  capital, 
Yamaguchi,  which  at  that  time  also  bore  the  name  of 
Little  Kioto.  There,  in  1550,  Francesco  Xavier 
founded  a  Jesuit  settlement.  Ouchi  Yoshitaka 
himself  embraced  Christianity,  and  worked  for  its 
dissemination.  But  his  efforts  were  ended  by  the 
hand  of  a  murderer.  Mori  Motonari  avenged  the 
deed  of  violence.  After  the  execution  of  the 
murderer,  he  conquered  for  himself  all  the  possessions 
of  the  Ouchi  family.  Later  he  put  down  the  Amako 
family  and  so  became  lord  of  ten  provinces. 

Chosokabe  Motochika  was  all  powerful  in  the 
island  of  Shikoku,  and  in  that  of  Kiushu  the  families 
Shimatsu,  Otomo,  and  Riuzoji  won  supremacy. 
Otomo  and  Riuzoji  were  Christians  and  sent 
embassies  to  Rome  and  Spain. 

1  Called  also  Ikko-Shu. 


In  the  province  of  Owari  the  Oda  family  rose  to 
power,  and  they  were  destined  to  have  a  distinguished 
future.  As  has  been  said,  Oda  Nobunaga  put  an 
end  to  the  Ashikaga  Shogunate. 

Before  relating  the  further  changes  in  the  domestic 
affairs  of  Japan  through  the  rise  of  the  Oda  family, 
we  shall  survey  the  relations  of  Japan  at  this  time 
with  foreign  lands. 



THE  Mongolian  dynasty,  the  victorious  advance  of 
which  in  China  has  already  been  mentioned,  reigned 
there  for  about  ioo  years.  It  was  then  driven  out  by 
a  Chinese  noble  family,  Shugensho,  and  from  1368 
was  again  confined  to  their  native  Mongolia.  The 
ShugenshS  founded  the  new  dynasty  Ming  which 
reigned  till  1 661,  the  year  of  the  foundation  of  present 
reigning  dynasty  of  China. 

Under  the  leadership  of  a  powerful  noble,  named 
Riseikei,  a  rebellion  broke  out  at  that  time  in  Korea 
against  the  reigning  dynasty  Ko-ryu  (Korai).  In 
1392,  he  founded  the  Chosen  (or  Chosun)  dynasty 
known  later  as  Kan,  which  reigned  there  until  the 
annexation  of  Korea  by  Japan  in  1910. 

As  we  have  seen  civil  wars  were  then  raging  in 
Japan.  It  was  the  period  when  the  imperial  family 
was  divided  into  the  northern  and  southern  dynasties. 
The  fighting  in  Japan  and  the  disorders  in  China  and 
Korea  through  the  change  of  dynasty,  enabled 
pirates  to  pursue  their  activities  unpunished  in  the 
south-west,    and     to    gain    increasing    importance. 


They  built  a  powerful  war  fleet  and  plundered  the 
coasts  of  China  and  Korea.  The  fleet  was  well 
organised.  It  had  flag-ships  for  the  commanders, 
cruisers,  light  patrol  boats  and  heavy  battleships.  It 
was  strengthened  by  a  number  of  Chinese  pirates. 
They  had  a  harbour  for  men  of  war  in  the  island  of 
Kiusiu  ;  the  Japanese  "  inland  sea  M  served  as  their 
headquarters.  The  governments  of  China  and 
Korea  were  powerless  against  the  pirates.  Suddenly 
they  appeared  and  plundered  the  coasts  and  the 
territory  situated  near  the  sea,  and  by  the  time  an  army 
of  the  government  appeared,  they  had  got  off  with 
rich  booty.  The  Chinese  and  Koreans  called  the 
dreaded  ships  butterflies,  on  account  of  the  long 
narrow  fluttering  flags  with  which  they  were 
decorated.  They  were  completely  masters  of  the 
coasts  of  China  and  Korea  for  more  than  200  years, 
and  their  power  only  became  weakened  in  the  reign 
of  the  Emperor  of  China,  Seiso  (1 522-1 566). 

The  first  Sh5gun  of  the  Ashikaga  family  who  was 
a  very  zealous  Buddhist  built  a  ship  in  order,  for  the 
good  of  Buddhism,  to  enter  into  regular  communica- 
tion with  China,  and  to  bring  over  thence  Buddhist 
books,  statues  of  Buddha  and  church  vessels. 

His  successors,  as  we  have  seen,  cultivated  relations 
with  China  for  financial  reasons.  The  3rd  ShSgun, 
Yoshimitsu,  signed  himself  in  letters  as  the  faithful 
vassal  of  the  Emperor  of  China,  so  as  to  save  himself 
by  his  help  from  financial  straits. 

When  the  power  of  the  Ashikaga  family  waned, 
the  Ouchi  family  which  ruled  in  the  town  of  Yama- 


guchi  (in  the  province  of  Suo),  continued  commercial 
relations  with  China  and  became  thereby  very  wealthy. 
It  was  now  that  the  Portugese  and  Spaniards  who 
were  then  masters  of  the  sea  and  at  the  zenith  of 
their  power,  first  came  to  Japan.  In  1543  Portugese 
merchants  landed  on  the  island  of  lahegashina,  and 
were  received  in  friendly  fashion  by  the  Daimio. 
They  rewarded  his  hospitality  with  a  gun,  which  was 
copied  two  years  afterwards  by  a  Japanese  smith,  and 
then  brought  into  general  use  in  the  land  under  the 
name  Tanegashina.  Six  years  later,  Francesco  Xavier 
the  Spanish  Jesuit,  landed  at  Kagoshima  in  the 
province  of  Satsuma.  He  spread  the  knowledge  of 
Christianity,  and  gained  many  converts ;  from  Kago- 
shima he  went  to  the  island  of  Hirato,  thence  to  the 
town  of  Hakata  in  the  province  of  Chikuzen,  and 
from  there  took  his  way  to  the  town  of  Yamaguchi 
in  the  province  of  Suo.  Everywhere  he  preached 
Christianity,  and  soon  there  were  several  Christian 
churches.  He  sought  the  capital,  Kioto,  with  the 
intention  of  converting  the  Emperor  and  the  Shogun 
to  his  faith.  But  in  consequence  of  the  prevailing 
disorder  and  fighting,  he  met  with  no  success.  The 
spread  of  Christianity  was  chiefly  in  the  south-west 
of  Japan.  The  importance  of  Portugese  and  Spanish 
influence  in  Japan  at  that  time  is  shown  by  the  fact 
that  until  the  present  day  numerous  Portugese  and 
Spanish  words  have  been  retained  in  the  Japanese 
language,  e.g.  saraca  (a  towel),  savon  (soap),  capa 
(macintosh  cloak),  carta  (cards),  copo  (glass),  con- 
fetos  (a  cake),  canequim  (a  towel),  etc. 


THE     ODA     AND     TOYOTOMI     FAMILIES     f  r  573 




We  have  already  stated  that  after  the  fall  of  the 
Ashikaga  family  there  was  no  Shogunate  for  thirty 
years.  During  that  time  a  concentrated  and  active 
central  government  was  lacking.  The  man  who  then 
occupied  the  most  powerful  position  was  Oda 
Nobunaga,  who  had  destroyed  the  Ashikaga-Shogun- 
ate.  He  was  once  more  to  unite  nearly  the  whole 
Empire  under  his  rule  without  attaining  the  office  of 
a  Shogun. 

The  Oda  family  was  descended  from  the  Taira. 
Originally  they  had  been  vassals  of  the  Kanrio  family, 
Shiba.  Oda  Nobuhide,  Nobunaga's  father,  freed  his 
family  from  that  dependent  position,  and  conquered 
a  portion  of  the  province  of  Owari.  It  should  be 
noted  that  he  maintained  friendly  relations  with  the 
imperial  family.  He  placed  money  at  the  Emperor's 
disposal,  and  partly  repaired  the  imperial  palace. 
He  was  succeeded  by  his  son,  Oda  Nobunaga,  a  man 
of  great  talents  and  high  ambition.  His  first 
military  feat  was  the  overthrow  of  the  Daimio,  Ima- 
gawa  Yoshimoto,  who  had  already  conquered  three 



provinces,  and  was  now  attempting  to  destroy  the 
Oda  family.  After  the  battle  at  Okehazama1  No- 
bunaga  had  him  beheaded.  The  victory  founded  his 
fame  throughout  the  empire.  He  then  allied  himself 
with  Tokugawa  Ieyasu  who  had  acquired  great  power 
in  the  east.  After  the  defeat  of  the  SaitS  family,  he 
erected  a  strong  fortress  in  the  province  of  Mino  and 
henceforth  resided  there. 

Some  time  before,  Ogimachi-Tenno  had  secretly 
asked  him  to  restore  the  authority  of  the  imperial 
throne.  Ashikaga  Yoshiaki,  brother  of  the  Shogun 
who  had  shortly  before  been  murdered  through  the 
Matsunaga  family,  also  requested  him  to  take 
vengeance  on  the  murderers  and  to  appoint  him 
Shdgun.  In  order  to  have  a  free  hand  for  this  under- 
taking, Nobunaga  made  peace  with  Takeda  Shingen, 
the  most  powerful  man  in  the  east,  and  in  1568 
marched  south  to  the  capital,  Kioto.  Soon  after  his 
arrival,  he  overthrew  the  Matsunaga  and  Miyoshi 
families  and  made  Ashikaga  Yoshiaki  Shogun.  Then 
he  had  the  imperial  palace  repaired  and  instituted  a 
fixed  annual  income  for  the  Emperor  ;  he  also  re- 
established the  court  ceremonials  which  in  consequence 
of  the  Emperor's  poverty  had  been  in  abeyance. 

Later  he  was  victorious  over  the  Asai  and  Asakura 
families  at  the  Anegawa.2  He  burnt  the  temple  of 
Enriakuji  which  gave  shelter  to  an  army  of  priests, 
and  thus  put  an  end  to  the  arrogance  of  the  power- 

1  Hazama= narrow  valley. 
9  Kawa  or  Gawa=river, 


ful  Buddhist  priests  who  for  five  hundred  years  had 
recognised  no  authority  over  them,  and  had  continu- 
ally pillaged  the  land.  In  order  to  diminish  the 
secular  power  of  the  Buddhist  priests,  he  supported 
Christianity  to  which  he  was  himself  soon  converted. 

Ashikaga  Yoshiaki  whom  he  had  appointed 
Shogun  was  jealous  of  the  growing  fame  of  Nobunaga 
and  thought  how  he  might  overthrow  him.  But  Oda 
Nobunaga  got  wind  of  his  plans,  and  sent  him  into 
exile,  and  thus  ended  the  Shogunate  of  the  Ashikaga 

family  (1573)- 

A  few  years  later,  in  1576,  Nobunaga  built  a  strong 
fortress,  seven  stories  high,  called  Tenshu,  in  the 
province  of  Omi,  on  the  Biwako.1  Others  soon 
imitated  him,  and  before  long  all  the  greater  Daimios 
possessed  similar  fortresses. 

But  Nobunaga  had  not  yet  attained  his  goal :  the 
conquest  of  the  whole  empire.  The  Mori  family 
which  had  acquired  great  power  in  the  south-west 
and  owned  there  10  provinces  especially  offered 
resistance.  Nobunaga  believed  he  could  reduce 
them  to  obedience,  and  sent  his  general  Toyotomi 
Hideyoshi  against  them  with  a  large  army,  while  he 
himself  marched  to  the  east  in  order  to  overcome  the 
Takeda  family.  Hideyoshi  was  not  equal  to  his 
task.  He  tried  in  vain  to  take  the  fortress  Takamatsu. 
He  asked  Nobunaga  for  auxiliaries.  Nobunaga  had 
been  successful,  and  having  destroyed  the  Takeda, 
determined  to  go  himself  to  Toyotomi's  assistance 

1  Ko  =  lake, 


with  his  whole  army.  On  the  way  to  the  seat  of 
war,  he  spent  the  night  in  the  temple  of  HonnSji  in 
the  capital,  Kioto ;  he  was  there  attacked  by  one  of 
his  officers,  Akechi  Mitsuhide.  He  had  been  ordered 
to  convey  troops  to  Toyotomi,  and  thought  it  was  an 
opportunity  to  avenge  an  insult  once  received  by  him 
from  Nobunaga.  Deprived  of  all  hope  of  rescue, 
Nobunaga  set  fire  to  the  temple,  and  then  killed 
himself,  and  his  eldest  son  followed  his  example. 
Thus  perished  this  brave  and  wise  man,  at  the  age  of 
48,  when  he  was  just  on  the  point  of  uniting  the  whole 
Empire  under  his  rule  (1582). 

His  death  was  lamented  by  his  people,  but  the 
Buddhist  priests  rejoiced  and  declared  that  his  tragic 
end  was  Buddha's  punishment  for  his  desertion  of 
the  ancient  faith. 

But  what  Oda  Nobunaga  had  accomplished  was 
not  wholly  in  vain.  What  he  had  begun  was  carried 
on  by  his  chief  officer,  Toyotomi  Hideyoshi,  who  was 
now  the  most  powerful  man  in  the  Empire. 



Like  so  many  great  men  of  that  time  Toyotomi- 
Hideyoshi '  was  of  lowly  birth.  His  father  had  been 
a  poor  peasant.  When  a  boy  of  fifteen  he  had 
volunteered  for  the  service  of  Oda  Nobunaga  who, 
with  his  keen  insight  into  character,  soon  recognised 
his  talents  and  made  him  a  soldier  and  gradually 
advanced  him  to  the  post  of  chief  officer. 

Hideyoshi  received  the  news  of  his  master's  death 
when  he  lay  before  Takamatsu,  the  fortress  of  the 
M5ri  family.  He  did  not  divulge  the  news,  and 
concluded  a  favourable  peace  with  the  Mori  family. 
Then  he  went  against  Nobunaga's  murderer  and 
defeated  him  at  the  battle  of  Yamazaki.2  Nobunaga's 
family  lived  in  the  castle  of  Atsuchi,  and  after  the 
victory  negociations  took  place  there  between  him, 
the  family  and  the  chief  vassals,  concerning  the 
succession.      He  effected  that   the    right   of  primo- 

1  His  original  name   was    Hiyoshimaru.      He  received  the 
family  name  Toyotomi  later  from  the  Emperor. 
1  Yama  »  mountain . 


geniture  which  was  firmly  rooted  in  Japan  should  be 
adhered  to,  and  that  Nobunaga's  year  old  grandson, 
son  of  the  eldest  son  who  had  died  with  him,  should 
be  named  successor  ;  the  grown  up  sons  of  Nobunaga 
were  passed  over.  Hideyoshi  himself  undertook  the 
guardianship  of  the  young  heir  during  his  minority. 

His  powerful  position  evoked  fear  and  envy,  and 
rebellions  soon  broke  out. 

The  two  most  powerful  vassals  of  the  Oda  family, 
Shibata  Katsuie  and  Takigawa  Katsumasu,  first 
allied  themselves  against  him,  and  they  were  joined 
by  Nobunaga's  third  son.  Hideyoshi  defeated 
Shibata  Katsuie  in  the  battle  of  Shizugadake1  (1583), 
and  pursued  him  to  his  castle  where  he  killed  him- 
self. Nobunaga's  son  also  killed  himself  after  the 
battle.     Takigawa  Katsumasu  later  surrendered. 

Next  year,  Nabunaga's  second  son  rebelled  against 
Hideyoshi.  He  was  supported  in  this  rising  by 
Tokugawa  Ieyasu  who  with  Oda  was  the  most 
powerful  Daimio.  The  two  armies  pitched  their 
camps  near  Komakiyama.2  They  lay  opposite  each 
other  for  six  months  without  hazarding  a  decisive 
battle.  There  were  merely  small  skirmishes  in  which 
Ieyasu  had  the  upper  hand.  Each  of  the  two 
generals,  Hideyoshi  and  Tokugawa  Ieyasu  fully 
recognised  the  ability  and  strength  of  the  other. 
They  became  more  and  more  convinced  that  a 
decisive  battle  between  them  would  ruin  them  both, 

1  Dake  =  mountain. 
9  Yama  =  mountain . 


while  allied,  they  might  gain  the  whole  Empire.  So 
a  truce  was  made  which  soon  developed  into  a 
friendly  alliance,  and  Hideyoshi  adopted  Ieyasu's 
eldest  son.  Ieyasu  subordinated  himself  to  Hideyoshi 
who  treated  him  always  as  if  he  had  full  equal  rights. 
Each  supported  the  other  in  all  enterprises. 

Hideyoshi  defeated  one  after  the  other,  Chdsokabe 
Motochika,  lord  of  the  island  of  Shikoku,  Sassa  Nari- 
masa,  a  Daimio  in  the  north  of  the  empire  and  Shim- 
atsu  Yoshihisa,  a  Daimio  of  the  island  of  Kiusiu. 
Finally  he  destroyed  Odawara,  the  stronghold  of  the 
Hojo  family  where  they  had  dwelt  for  about  a  hun- 
dred years,  utterly  defeated  the  family,  and  took  from 
them  the  eight  provinces  of  the  plain  of  Kanto  that 
had  submitted  to  them.  Thus  he  ruled  the  whole  of 
the  Japanese  Empire  (1590). 

Hideyoshi  had  already  built  himself  a  splendid 
palace  in  the  capital.  He  now  had  strong  fortresses 
erected  at  the  port  of  Osaka,  and  at  Fushimi  near 
Kioto,  The  Emperor,  who  joyfully  welcomed  the 
union  of  the  Empire,  loaded  him  with  honours  and 
visited  him  in  his  palace.  Hideyoshi  became  Kam- 
baku,  an  office  formerly  held  by  the  Fujiwara,  and 
Dajddaijin  (first  chancellor).  He  could  not  attain 
the  ardently  desired  office  of  Shogun,  because  he  was 
not  of  noble  birth.  But  that  did  not  injure  his 
powerful  position  which  he  tried  to  strengthen  by 
a  new  organisation  of  government.  He  appointed  5 
Bugio  who  were  responsible  to  him  alone,  and  the 
old  imperial  ministers  were  as  unimportant  as  ever. 
He  had  the  whole  country  surveyed,  and  instituted 


new  taxes.  For  the  first  time  after  more  than  600 
years  gold  and  silver  coins  were  minted.  Under 
Hideyoshi's  strong  hand,  order  prevailed  in  the 
land  which  had  been  in  a  state  of  anarchy  for  more 
than  a  century. 



WHEN  Hideyoshi  found  himself  the  undisputed  ruler 
of  the  whole  Japanese  Empire,  he  made  plans  for  the 
conquest  of  neighbouring  lands.  The  desire  for  con- 
quest and  bold  enterprises  corresponded  to  the  de- 
sire for  fame  and  adventure  that  prevailed  at  the 
time.  And  memories  of  the  pirates'  bold  deeds  whose 
power  had  died  out,  and  intercourse  with  Europeans 
encouraged  men  to  look  beyond  their  fatherland. 

Embassies  were  sent  to  Formosa,  the  Philippines 
and  India  to  persuade  those  countries  to  recognise 
Japan's  supremacy,  and  everything  was  prepared  for 
a  campaign  against  China  with  a  view  to  the  con- 
quest of  that  land.  Hideyoshi  invited  the  king  of 
Korea  to  join  him  with  his  army  and  to  act  as  his 
guide.  The  king  preferred  the  supremacy  of  China, 
and  refused  the  invitation.  Therefore  the  conquest 
of  Korea  became  the  first  objective. 

In  order  to  be  able  to  devote  himself  solely  to  that 
enterprise,  Hideyoshi  transferred  the  government  of 
Japan  to  Hidetsugu's  nephew  whom  he  had  adopted, 
and  made  him  Kambaku.    He  himself  abdicated,  and 


thenceforth  bore  the  title  of  Taig5,  conferred  on  a 
Kambaku  who  had  abdicated. 

A  large  army  was  assembled  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  port  of  Nagoya  in  the  province  of  Hizen  on 
the  island  of  Kiusiu.  The  land  troops  and  the  garis- 
son  of  the  fleet  comprised  together  160,000  men. 
They  went  over  to  Korea  from  Nagoya.  Hideyoshi 
remained  behind  with  the  reserve. 

Ukida  Hideie  was  in  command  of  the  whole  army, 
Konishi  Yoshinaga  and  Kato  Kiyomasa  commanded 
the  invading  army.  The  troops  under  them  fought  the 
hostile  forces  "as  easily  as  bamboos  are  split,"  and  20 
days  after  their  landing,  they  marched  in  triumph  into 
the  capital,  Seoul.  The  Kingof  Korea  fled  to  the  north- 
west, to  the  Chinese  frontier,  and  asked  help  of  the 
Emperor  of  China.  Konishi  pursued  him  and  took 
the  old  capital,  Phyong-yang.  Kato  pursued  the  two 
royal  princes  who  had  fled  to  the  north-east  frontier, 
and  took  them  both  prisoners  at  Ham-gyung. 

The  Emperor  of  China  sent  a  large  army  under 
Soshokun  to  the  king's  assistance.  But  it,  too,  was 
speedily  conquered  by  Konishi,  and  only  a  few  strag- 
glers returned  to  their  native  land.  A  second  Chinese 
army  under  the  command  of  Yi-yu-Song  (Rijiosho) 
fought  at  first  with  real  success,  and  even  won  a 
victory  over  Konishi.  But  when  it  attempted  to  re- 
gain the  capital,  Seoul,  the  Japanese  general  Kobaya- 
kawa  Takakage  utterly  routed  it  at  Hekiteikan. 

After  this  victory  of  the  Japanese,  the  Chinese 
ambassador  Shinikei  entered  into  negotiations  with 
Konishi,  and  he  and  the  Korean  ambassador  went  to 


Hideyoshi's  court  where  they  agreed  to  the  follow- 
ing preliminary  treaty  :  Japan  was  to  receive  half  of 
Korea ;  a  Japanese  prince  was  to  marry  a  Chinese 
princess,  and  henceforth  there  was  to  be  friendly 
alliance  between  China  and  Japan.  The  two  Korean 
princes  were  to  be  set  at  liberty.  But  the  Chinese 
envoy  did  not  communicate  the  articles  of  the  treaty 
to  his  Emperor,  who  after  a  while  sent  an  embassy  to 
Hideyos"hi  to  make  him  King  of  Japan  under  Chinese 
supremacy.  When  the  envoy  told  his  message  to 
Hideyoshi,  he  was  exceedingly  angry,  and  prepared 
a  new  army  to  fight  against  Korea  and  China. 

It  landed  in  Korea  in  1596.  The  campaign  led  to 
the  famous  battles  on  the  mountain  of  Ulsan,  and  the 
brilliant  victory  of  the  Japanese  at  Shi-sen.  Kato 
Kiyomasa,  the  Japanese  general,  was  besieged  by  a 
Chinese  army  on  the  mountain  of  Ulsan.  The  Jap- 
anese suffered  terribly  from  cold  and  hunger,  but 
notwithstanding  they  were  the  victors  in  the  end. 
The  Japanese  fleet,  too,  defeated  the  Koreans.  Un- 
fortunately in  1598  Hideyoshi  died.  The  Japanese 
army  returned  home,  and  these  battles  which  had 
exacted  the  greatest  sacrifices  in  life  and  property 
during  six  years,  were  absolutely  unproductive  for 



AND      TOKUGAWA      FAMILIES.        VICTORY     OF     THE 


The  death  of  Hideyoshi  was  naturally  of  great 
importance  for  the  relations  between  the  Toyotomi 
and  the  Tokugawa  families.  The  good  understanding 
that  had  existed  between  them  during  these  last  years 
came  to  an  end. 

The  Tokugawa  family  was  descended  from  Mina- 
moto ;  for  many  generations  they  had  lived  in  the 
province  of  Mikawa  where  they  had  been  helpful  to 
the  Imagawa  family.  When  the  Imagawa  were  over- 
thrown by  Oda  Nobunaga,  Tokugawa  Ieyasu  made 
his  family  independent,  and  allied  himself  with  Oda 
Nobunaga  who  soon  placed  great  trust  in  him.  At 
Nobunaga's  death  Ieyasu  already  owned  5  provinces. 
We  have  seen  how  war  broke  out  between  him  and 
Hideyoshi  and  how  he  made  peace  with  him  on 
account  of  his  power  and  wisdom.  When  by  the 
overthrow  of  the  Hojo  family,  Hideyoshi  gained  8 
provinces  in  the  plain  of  Kanto,  he  presented  those 
to  him  in  place  of  his  former  possessions.    Tokugawa 


Ieyasu   resided  at   Edo,  now  TokiS.     The  fame   of 
his  virtues  increased  from  day  to  day. 

Shortly  before  Hideyoshi's  death  one  of  the  5 
treasurers  named  Maeda  Toshiie  was  appointed 
guardian  of  his  son  who  was  a  minor.  But  he  only 
held  the  post  for  a  short  time.  After  his  death 
Tokugawa  Ieyasu  was  the  real  head  of  the  government. 

Vassals  of  the  Toyotomi  family  like  Ishida  Mitsu- 
nari  and  others,  were  jealous  of  the  growing  power 
of  the  Tokugawa,  and  feared  that  they  would  once 
again  outshine  them  and  the  Toyotomi  family.  They 
secretly  collected  together  those  minded  like  themselves 
and  hatched  a  conspiracy.  In  1600  Uesugi  Kagekatsu, 
one  of  the  leaders  of  the  conspiracy,  struck  the  first 
blow  in  his  native  place — Aizu — where  he  had 
assembled  an  army.  Tokugawa  left  one  of  his  officers 
at  Kioto  with  a  garrison,  and  proceeded  himself  with 
his  sons  and  a  large  army  against  the  rebels.  But  on 
the  way  he  received  the  news  that  the  vassals  of  the 
Toyotomi  family  had  risen  in  his  rear  at  Osaka,  and 
that  the  general,  Ishida  Mitsunari,  one  of  their 
adherents,  was  on  the  point  of  taking  Kioto.  He 
gave  the  leadership  of  the  campaign  against  Uesugi 
Kagekatsu  to  his  son,  and  with  a  portion  of  the  troops 
hastened  himself  to  the  capital.  Ishida  Mitsunari 
opposed  him  with  the  whole  of  his  army  in  the  plain 
of  Sekigahara.  The  adherents  of  the  Toyotomi 
family  numbered  about  130,000  men,  and  Tokugawa 
Ieyasu's  army  75,000.  A  battle  ensued  in  which* 
both  sides  fought  with  great  animosity.  The  result 
of  the  strife  was  that  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Toyotomi 


deserted  in  the  midst  of  the  struggle,  and  delivered 
the  camp  that  he  commanded  to  Tokugawa  Ieyasu, 
and  with  all  his  forces  turned  against  the  Toyotomi. 
The  battle  ended  in  the  utter  rout  of  the  Toyotomi 
and  Ishida  Mitsunari.  The  latter  fled  but  was 
captured  and  killed.  Uesugi  Kagekatsu  soon  sur- 
rendered. The  Toyotomi  became  the  vassals  of  the 
Tokugawa  ;  only  three  provinces  remained  to  them. 
Tokugawa  Ieyasu's  heart's  desire,  that  his  family 
should  again  hold  the  Shogunate,  was  fulfilled. 




Pace  p.  145] 



AFTER  the  defeat  of  the  Toyotomi  the  Emperor 
favoured  the  victorious  Tokugawa  Ieyasu.  He  con- 
ferred on  him  several  titles  of  honour,  recognised  his 
descent  from  the  Minamoto,  and  appointed  him 
Shogun  (1603).  Ieyasu  made  Yedo — the  present 
Toki5 — his  capital  and  began  the  internal  organization 
of  his  newly  established  rule  with  the  enlargement  of 
the  city. 

His  chief  exertions  were  directed  to  ensure  the 
lasting  possession  of  the  Shogunate  to  his  family. 
Therefore  he  very  soon  abdicated  in  favour  of  his 
son  Hidetada,  and  made  him  Shogun  (1605). 

But  he  did  not  feel  confident  of  the  lasting  supre- 
macy of  his  family,  so  long  as  the  Toyotomi  were  in 
possession  of  considerable  power,  and  he  sought  for 
an  opportunity  to  accomplish  their  destruction. 
Shortly  before  his  death  he  attained  his  desire. 

In  1614  he  began  the  war  on  a  trivial  pretext.  Of 
the  faithful  adherents  who  took  up  arms  for  the 
Toyotomi,  Ono  Harunaga  deserves  special  mention. 
Ieyasu  and  his  son,  the  Shogun,  marched  with  a  large 



army  against  the  fortress  of  the  Toyotomi  at  Osaka. 
Many  fierce  battles  were  fought  round  the  stronghold 
which  successfully  kept  off  the  enemy's  attack. 
Therefore  Ieyasu  felt  compelled  to  sue  for  peace, 
but  with  no  honourable  intention.  He  was  only 
waiting  for  the  summer  in  order  to  begin  the  war 
afresh.  Accompanied  by  his  son,  he  again  marched 
with  a  large  army  to  Osaka,  and  surprised  the 
garrison.  A  final  fierce  struggle  ended  in  the  taking 
of  the  place  by  storm.  Hideyori,  Hideyoshi's  son 
and  his  mother  killed  themselves.  The  victors  burnt 
the  fortress  to  the  ground.  So  ended  the  Toyotomi 
family.     Tokugawa  Ieyasu  attained  his  desire. 

The  supremacy  of  his  family  was  assured  by  the 
destruction  of  the  Toyotomi,  and  peace  was  restored 
to  the  land  which  for  more  than  200  years  had  been 
a  prey  to  incessant  wars.  For  the  next  200  years 
the  state  both  at  home  and  abroad  was  entirely  free 
from  strife. 

At  the  end  of  his  life  Ieyasu  issued  a  law  concerning 
the  knights  containing  13  articles  which  set  forth 
their  position  and  their  duties,  and  also  a  decree  with 
17  articles  dealing  with  court  life,  and  regulating  with 
great  detail  the  court  ceremonials,  the  education  and 
life  of  the  princes,  and  the  duties  of  the  officials  of  the 

1  The  so-called  100  laws  of  Ieyasu  do  not  emanate  from  him. 
They  were  the  work  of  Yoshemune,  the  8th  Shogun,  who  in 
order  to  lend  them  a  higher  authority  declared  that  they  had 
already  been  written  down  by  Ieyasu,  but  that  he  had  not 
proclaimed  them. 


The  internal  organization  of  the  Tokugawa 
Shogunate  was  not  finished  by  Ieyasu.  It  was  only 
actually  settled  under  Iemitsu,  the  3rd  Shogun. 

It  was  essentially  more  complicated  than  that  of 
the  former  Shogunates.  At  the  head  of  the  whole 
administration  stood  the  Tairo,  the  Grand  Treasurer, 
the  highest  official  under  the  Shogun.  Below  him 
came  the  board  of  the  5  R5chu,  the  treasurers. 
They  controlled  the  imperial  court  officials  and  Daimio. 
Below  the  Board  of  the  Rochu  was  the  Board  of  the 
Wakadoshiyori '  the  lesser  treasurers,  comprising  from 
3  to  5  persons.  They  had  control  over  the  knights. 
The  three  departments  held  regular  meetings  together 
under  the  presidency  of  the  Tairo.  Under  them 
again  were  the  three  Bugio  in  whose  hands  were  the 
administration  of  finance,  the  municipal  government 
of  Yedo,  and  the  control  of  the  Buddhist  and  Shinto 
temples.  The  three  highest  departments  of  the 
Kioto-Shoshidai  and  the  rest  of  the  Bugio  came 
below  them  again.  They  were  :  the  Machi  Bugio  of 
Kioto  (imperial  capital),  of  Osaka  (an  important  port, 
and  formerly  the  residence  of  the  Toyotomi  family), 
and  of  Sumpu  (residence  of  the  first  Shogun  who  had 
abdicated)  and  the  Bugio  of  Nagasaki  and  Sakai  (chief 
towns  for  foreign  trade),  of  Yamada  (town  of  the 
celebrated  temple  of  Amaterasu-Omikami),  of  Nara 
(formerly  the  imperial  capital),  of  Nikko  (where  the  3rd 
Shogun  built  a  temple  to  Ieyasu  in  which  he  enj  eye 
divine  honours)  etc. 

1Waka  =  young,  Toshiyori  or  Doshiyori  =  Rochu. 


Ieyasu  reformed  the  feudal  system  in  a  wise  and 
thorough  fashion. 

The  existing  Daimios,  over  260  in  number,  were 
divided  into  three  classes.  The  first  formed  the 
Shim  pan  :  they  were  feudal  princes  who  were  related 
to  the  Shogun.  The  second  class  formed  the  Fudai, 
feudal  princes  who  held  their  lands  as  fiefs  from  the 
Shogun.  The  third  class  was  the  Tozama,  feudal 
princes  who  were  brought  into  subjection  by  the 

The  last  class  were  in  the  majority.  In  order  to 
protect  himself  for  ever  from  their  rebellions,  Ieyasu 
settled  the  Shimpan  in  the  most  important  districts, 
e.g.  his  sons  received  extensive  territories  in  the 
provinces  adjacent  to  the  two  capitals.  He  always 
placed  the  Fudai  near  the  Toyama  so  that  they  might 
act  as  a  guard  to  the  latter,  keep  them  apart,  and  render 
rebellion  futile.  When  a  noble  family  became  extinct 
he  took  possession  of  their  territory  as  vacant  lands. 

Later  Iemitsu  enacted  the  harsh  revolutionary 
law  that  the  wife  and  family  of  every  Daimio  must 
live  permanently  in  the  town  of  Yedo,  where  they 
served  the  Shogunate  as  hostages.  And  each  Daimio 
had  to  spend  every  other  year  in  Yedo  with  a  fixed 
number  of  his  Samurai.  The  sojourn  there,  especially 
as  they  had  to  defray  the  expenses  of  their  companions 
was  extremely  costly  for  the  Daimio,  and  led  to  their 
impoverishment,  a  result  desired  by  the  Shogunate 
in  order  to  preserve  peace  in  the  land. 

Ieyasu  tried  to  preserve  friendly  relations  with  the 
imperial  family.     He  settled  a  fixed  income  on  the 


Emperor  of  10,000  Koku  of  rice.1  He  and  his 
successors  paid  him  all  possible  honour,  but  at  the 
same  time  took  care  that  he  should  not  acquire  any 
actual  power.  As  has  already  been  said,  they 
appointed  a  Shoshidai  for  Kioto  whose  duty  it  was 
always  to  watch  over  the  imperial  family.  The 
2nd  Shogun,  Hidetada,  married  his  daughter  to 
Gomitsunoo-Tenno.  She  bore  him  a  daughter  who 
succeeded  to  the  throne  as  Empress,  since  Gomitsunoo- 
Tenno  disliked  the  manner  in  which  the  Shogun 
oppressed  him,  and  abdicated.  The  accession  of  a 
princess  was  very  rare  in  Japan.  It  had  not  happened 
for  more  than  860  years,  and  now  only  through  the 
distinguished  position  of  the  Tokugawa  family 
which  became  of  still  greater  importance  during  the 
reign  of  this  princess  of  their  blood. 

1  About  44  gallons. 



The  establishment  of  the  Tokugawa  Sh5gunate 
marks  the  zenith  of  the  feudal  age.  We  have  to 
survey  a  period  the  history  of  which  is  almost  only 
the  history  of  the  Buke  class,  of  the  great  military 
families  of  the  DAimiS  and  their  vassals,  the  Samurai. 
The  supremacy  of  that  class  is  most  clearly  seen  in 
the  political  organization  now  introduced  by  the 
Tokugawa  and  which  procured  a  long  period  of  peace, 
and  in  the  laws  which  they  decreed  and  administered. 

In  name  the  Emperor  and  the  Kuge,  the  nobility 
who  were  his  inferiors,  still  continued  to  hold  a 
lofty  and  divine  position.  But  in  reality  they  had 
no  influence  in  political  affairs,  were  of  no  importance 
at  all,  and  spent  their  lives  in  strict  seclusion. 

The  people  at  this  time  occupied  a  very  subordinate 
position.  All  the  land,  and  all  the  towns  belonged 
to  the  Shogun  and  the  DaimiSs.  The  peasants  had 
to  rent  the  land  from  them  and  to  pay  heavy  tribute 
out  of  their  produce.  The  inhabitants  of  the  towns, 
the  artisans  and  merchants,  held  a  still  lower  place. 
Neither    the    peasants     nor     the    townsfolk     were 

Imperial  Official  (Kuge) 
In  Court  Dress 

[Face  p.  15d 


bondsmen  or  serfs,  but  they  had  very  few  privileges 
and  very  little  liberty. 

This  is  the  age  of  the  Buke. 

In  the  course  of  the  last  centuries  so  fertile  in 
great  struggles  and  heroic  deeds  of  chivalry,  the 
ruling  class  of  knights  was  distinguished  by  its  own 
special  code  of  morals  and  practical  outlook  on  life, 
and  had  evolved  a  system  of  ethics  of  its  own  known 
by  the  term  "Bushido."1 

Bushido  demanded  sincerity  and  truthfulness  from 
the  Samurai.  Treacherous  actions  and  crooked  ways, 
lies  and  duplicity  were  reckoned  a  great  disgrace. 
The  word  of  a  Samurai  was  so  highly  esteemed,  that 
a  written  promise  was  held  to  be  unworthy  of  him. 

The  Bushi  was  trained  from  earliest  youth  to  be 
courageous,  and  to  endure  pain,  privation  and  hard- 
ship. The  nurse  related  to  the  child  the  great  deeds 
of  his  ancestors.  At  night  the  youth  had  to  visit 
gloomy  spots,  places  of  execution,  churchyards,  etc., 
in  order  to  prove  his  fearlessness.  In  times  of  peace, 
tournaments  and  jousts  in  which  he  could  demonstrate 
his  courage  formed  the  chief  employment  of  a  Bushi. 
To  yield  his  life  on  the  field  of  battle  was  regarded  as 
supreme  happiness  and  honour. 

The  knight  was  not  allowed  to  betray  in  his  face  joy, 
sorrow,  or  any  kind  of  emotion.  It  was  considered 
to  be  incompatible  with  the  absolute  self-control  that 
was  required  of  him.     To  shed  tears  was  reckoned  a 

1  i.e.  way  of  the  Bushi,  the  knights.  Cf.  Professor  Nitobe's 
admirable  book  "  Bushido,  the  soul  of  Japan,"  Tokio,  1905. 


disgrace.  He  might  not  also  give  expression  to  his 
feelings  in  words,  a  relief  permitted  only  to  poets. 
The  Bushi  must  not  embrace  his  son  in  the  presence 
of  others,  nor  kiss  his  wife.  The  self-control  of  the 
knight  is  best  illustrated  by  the  curious  method  of 
suicide  among  the  Japanese. 

The  suicide  of  a  knight — Harakiri,  also  called 
Seppuku  and  Kappuku — consisted  in  ripping  up  the 
stomach.  To  kill  himself  in  any  other  way  was  dis- 
graceful and  unworthy  of  a  knight.  A  man  could 
only  honourably  put  an  end  to  his  life  in  this  painful 
manner.  A  knight  could  even  redeem  his  tarnished 
honour  by  Harakiri. 

The  knight  showed  absolute  equanimity  when 
inflicting  on  himself  this  terrible  kind  of  self-murder. 
As  witnessed  by  European  eyes,  he  grasped  his 
dagger  with  his  left  hand  without  the  slightest  sign  of 
excitement,  drove  it  in  below  the  navel,  on  the  left 
side,  without  changing  a  muscle  of  his  face,  drew  it 
along  to  the  right  side,  turned  it  in  the  wound  and 
made  a  cut  upwards.  During  the  time  of  the 
Tokugawas,  Harakiri  was  also  used  as  a  punishment. 
It  was  considered  a  great  favour  if  anyone,  instead  of 
being  executed,  was  condemned  to  so  honourable  a 
death.  Harakiri  was  a  solemn,  ceremonial  act, 
executed  in  the  presence  of  witnesses. 

But  the  knight  did  not  only  practice  these  severe 
virtues,  Bushido  taught  him  to  develop  the  softer 
stirrings  of  his  heart. 

To  love  and  honour  his  parents  was  one  of  the 
highest    duties    of   the   knight.      The    Bushi    must 

Samurai  and  His  Servant 


[Face  p.  152 


always  be  just  and  fight  for  the  cause  of  justice.  The 
greatest  bravery  counted  as  nothing  if  the  cause  wa~ 
a  bad  one,  The  Bushi  must  have  compassion  o  ft 
the  weak,  the  oppressed,  and  the  conquered  ;  it  wa^ 
considered  a  great  disgrace  for  a  warrior  to  enter  into 
an  unequal  contest  with  a  younger  or  weaker 
adversary  and  overthrow  him. 

Above  all  the  knight  must  be  distinguished  from 
an  ordinary  man  by  his  politeness  and  refined 
conduct.  He  was  bound  by  strict  social  rules  in  his 
intercourse  with  his  fellows  which  assured  the  out- 
ward expression  of  sympathetic  consideration  for  the 
feelings  of  others.  Later,  politeness  and  courtesy 
came  to  be  regarded  by  foreigners  as  a  typical  Japanese 
trait.  A  refined  and  thorough  system  of  etiquette 
was  practised  in  knightly  circles.  The  greatest  care 
was  taken  to  learn  and  to  teach  how  to  bow,  to  walk 
and  sit.  Behaviour  at  meals  was  a  science ;  tea- 
drinking  was  a  real  ceremonial.  The  essential  quality 
of  the  etiquette  is  expressed  in  the  following  sentences 
by  one  of  its  leading  spirits  :  This  is  the  aim  of  all 
etiquette  :  you  must  learn  to  demean  yourself  in  such 
a  way  that  the  roughest  rascal  would  not  dare  to 
attack  your  person  even  if  you  sit  still." 

The  highest  duty  of  the  Samurai  was  loyalty  to 
his  master.  He  must  be  ready  to  give  his  life  for 
him  at  any  moment.  He  must  even  sacrifice  the  lives 
of  his  children  for  his  master's  sake. 

But  it  is  not  to  be  thought  that  the  relation  of  the 
Samurai  to  the  Daimio  was  that  of  a  slave  to  a  tyrant. 
The  master  was  under  equal  obligation  to  keep  faith 


with  his  Samurai,  and  to  care  for  him  as  for  himself. 
He  was  in  the  position  of  a  father  of  a  family.  The 
obedience  of  the  Samurai  was  voluntary,  not  com- 
pulsory. It  was  an  unknightly  act  for  a  Samurai  to 
execute  any  order  of  his  lord  that  did  not  correspond 
with  his  conviction.  In  such  cases  he  had  to  warn  his 
master,  and  try  to  persuade  him.  To  act  against  his 
conscience  was  not  in  accordance  with  the  teaching 
of  Bushido.  If  the  loyalty  of  a  Samurai  to  his 
master  conflicted  with  his  conscience,  his  only 
resource  was  to  commit  suicide. 

The  consciousness  of  the  personal  dignity  and 
worth  of  the  Samurai  rested  on  all  these  virtues,  on 
them  rested  his  honour.  Honour  was  the  most 
valuable  possession  of  the  Samurai,  and  he  would 
joyfully  give  his  life  for  it.  If  he  injured  his  honour, 
he  forfeited  his  existence  as  a  Bushi.  Harakiri 
offered  the  only  means  of  retrieving  his  honour. 

Apart  from  Harakiri,  the  code  c/f  honour  of  the 
Japanese  knight  differs  most  from  that  of  European 
chivalry  in  regard  to  the  position  of  women. 

Women  held  a  lower  position  in  Japanese  than  in 
European  chivalry.  While  to  defend  the  honour  of 
a  woman,  to  reverence  her  womanly  virtues,  and  to 
cultivate  purely  feminine  qualities  in  her  were  essential 
elements  in  European  chivalry,  in  Japan  the  woman 
was  trained  in  warlike  courage.  She,  too,  had  to 
learn  to  control  her  feelings,  to  harden  her  nerves,  and 
to  use  arms.  She  learned  to  swing  the  Naginata,  the 
long-handled  sword,  and  from  early  youth  was 
always   armed   with   a   dagger  (Kai-ken).      It    was 

Samurai  in  Ceremonial  Dress 

(Pace  p.  154 

Knights  Exercising 

Face  p.  155] 


considered  that  this  warlike  education  better  enabled 
a  woman  to  bring  up  her  children  to  be  brave. 

This  system  of  ethics  soon  spread  beyond  the 
class  of  the  Buke,  and  penetrated  through  the  whole 
nation.  Bushido  was  the  code  of  honour  for  all 
educated  Japanese. 

The  spirit  of  chivalry  and  the  general  culture  of 
the  feudal  period  were  of  great  importance  for  the 
future  of  the  Japanese  people.  It  is  chiefly  due  to 
them  that  the  Japanese  were  able,  later,  so  quickly 
to  take  a  place  on  a  level  with  the  rest  of  the 
civilized  world. 



When  Tokugawa  Ieyasu  had  firmly  established  his 
supremacy  over  the  whole  Japanese  empire,  he  did 
not,  like  Toyotomi  Hideyoshi,  think  of  foreign  con- 
quest ;  he  confined  himself  to  depriving  the  king  of 
Riukiu  of  the  supremacy  he  exercised  over  several 
small  islands  in  the  south  of  Japan.  Otherwise  he 
took  care  to  live  in  peace  with  his  neighbours,  and 
to  encourage  commercial  relations  with  them.  He 
brought  about  a  peace  between  the  Daimio  of  the 
island  of  Tsushima  situated  near  Korea,  and  Korea, 
and  restored  trade  with  that  country.  The  relations 
of  the  two  governments  were  friendly.  When  a  new 
Shogun  succeeded,  the  king  of  Korea  sent  an  em- 
bassy to  Yedo  to  offer  his  congratulations.  Ieyasu 
also  sought  to  set  up  friendly  relations  with  the 
Chinese  government,  but  it  did  not  make  a  ready 
response,  yet  all  the  same,  active  commercial  inter- 
course arose  between  Chinese  and  Japanese 

At  this  time,  too,  the  Dutch  and  English  first  came 
into  contact  with  Japan  ;   Portugese  and  Spaniards 

Korean  Embassy 



were  the  only  Europeans  who  had  before  visited 
Japan.  In  1600  a  Dutch  ship  was  driven  by 
contrary  winds  to  Japan.  Among  others  on  board 
were  the  Dutchman  Jan  Josten  and  the  Englishman 
William  Adams.  Ieyasu  gave  them  a  kind  reception 
in  Yedo,  asked  for  information  about  Europe,  and 
kept  them  at  court  as  advisers.  The  name  of  a 
street  in  Tokio  keeps  alive  their  memory  to  this  day. 
In  1609  a  Dutch  embassy  arrived  and  with  the 
ShSgun  effected  the  establishment  in  the  name  of 
the  Dutch  government  of  regular  trade  between  the 
two  countries,  and  received  permission  to  build  a 
factory  on  the  island  of  Hirato.  In  161 3  the 
English  came,  and  they  also  were  allowed  to  build 
a  factory  at  Hirato.  But  they  found  the  Dutch 
competition  too  strong  for  them,  and  soon  withdrew^ 
especially  as  they  had  discovered  a  richer  field  of 
action  in  India. 

Under  the  guidance  of  William  Adams,  the 
Japanese  learned  to  build  ships  in  the  European 
manner,  and  undertook  voyages  to  foreign  lands. 
There  arose  regular  lines  of  ships  to  Amakawa,  now 
Makao  in  China,  to  Annan,  Java,  the  Philippines, 
India,  etc.  In  1610  Japan  sent  the  first  ship  to 
Mexico  (Nova  Hispania),  and  it  soon  became  usual 
for  Japanese  ships  to  sail  the  Pacific  Ocean. 

Motives  of  religion  also  took  Japanese  ships  to 
Europe  at  this  period.  Already  in  1582  (the  10th 
Tensho  year)  the  Daimi5s  of  Omura,  Arima,  and 
Otomo  fitted  out  a  ship  which  sailed  through  the 
Indian  Ocean  and  round  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  to 


Spain  where  these  Japanese  Catholics  paid  a  visit 
to  Philip  II.  From  Spain  they  went  to  Rome  and 
visited  the  Pope.  It  was  8  years  before  they  re- 
turned to  their  homes.  In  1613  the  Christian 
Samurai,  Hasekura  Tsunenaga  and  6  companions, 
was  sent  by  his  master,  Date  Masamune,  on  a 
voyage  to  Europe.  Contrary  to  the  earlier  embassy 
he  sailed  over  the  Pacific  Ocean,  visited  the  Governor 
of  Mexico,  and  then  sailed  round  South  America, 
and  across  the  Atlantic  to  Spain  and  Rome.  He 
returned  to  Japan  in  the  7th  year. 

The  merchant  service  was  at  this  time  under 
the  charge  and  protection  of  the  Shogunate.  Every 
merchant  vessel  had  to  carry  a  certificate  of  per- 
mission from  the  Shogunate.  They  were  called 
■Toshuinsen1  after  the  certificate. 

The  love  of  adventure  of  the  Japanese  knights  was 
stirred  by  long  voyages  to  distant  lands,  and  there 
are  many  stories  of  heroic  deeds  performed  by 
Japanese  adventurers  in  foreign  countries  at  this 

Yamada  Nagamasa,  a  knight  of  the  province  of 
Suruga,  went  to  Siam,  where  already  about  8,000 
Japanese  merchants  were  living,  entered  the  service 
of  the  king,  and  became  commander-in-chief  of 
the  Siamese  army.  On  behalf  of  his  master,  he 
conquered  a  large  part  of  eastern  India  for  the 
Siamese  kingdom.  The  king  gave  him  his  daughter 
in  marriage,  and  presented  him  as  a  fief  with  a  part 

1  Sen  =  ship,  Shuin  =  red  stamp,  Go  =  sign  of  politeness. 


of  his  kingdom.  When  the  king  died,  leaving  a  son 
who  was  a  minor,  Yamada  Nagamasa  became 
guardian  for  his  brother-in-law,  the  young  king,  and 
as  such  ruled  over  the  whole  kingdom.  But  the 
Siamese  hated  him  because  he  was  a  foreigner,  and 
poisoned  him. 

A  Ronin, l  Hamada  Yahei,  went  with  his  brothers, 
and  his  son  and  a  few  Samurai  to  Formosa  in  order 
to  take  vengeance  on  the  Dutch  governor  who  had 
continually  attacked  and  plundered  Japanese  ships. 
They  disguised  themselves  as  peasants  and  landed, 
behaving  as  if  they  intended  to  settle  there  as 
colonists.  They  surprised  the  governor's  palace, 
took  him  prisoner,  seized  the  valuable  treasures,  and 
returned  with  them  to  their  native  land. 

Teiseiko  accomplished  daring  deeds  in  foreign 
lands,  and  was  the  hero  of  many  adventures  ;  his 
mother  was  Japanese,  his  father  Chinese.  He  went 
to  China  when  the  Manchurians  made  their 
momentous  attack,  and  the  former  Chinese  imperial 
family  of  Ming  was  overthrown  by  the  Manchurian 
dynasty  of  Tsching  which  still  reigns  in  China.  He 
put  himself  at  the  head  of  the  Chinese  party  of 
opposition  to  the  new  dynasty,  and  gathered  a  large 
number  of  Chinese  troops  round  him,  and  from  time 
to  time  obtained  much  success.  He  brought  the 
whole  of  the  country  south  of  the  Yang-tse-Kiang 
into  his  power,  but  finally  he  was  compelled  to  leave 
China  chiefly  because  the  government  of  the 
Shogunate  left  him  without  help.     He  went  to  the 

1 A  Samurai  who  had  lost  his  master. 


island  of  Formosa,  expelled  the  Dutch  and  made 
himself  king.  After  his  death,  he  was  succeeded  by 
his  son  and  his  grandson,  and  his  family  governed 
the  island  for  more  than  30  years.  But  in  1683  his 
grandson  succumbed  to  a  Chinese  attack. 

In  consequence  of  the  missionary  efforts  of  the 
Jesuits  active  relations  between  Japan  and  foreign 
lands  did  not  last  long. 



The  coming  of  Francesco  Xavier  to  Japan  in  1549 
resulted  in  a  continuous  activity  of  the  Roman 
Catholic  missionaries.  Oda  Nobunaga,  especially, 
furthered  the  spread  of  Christianity.  He  built  a 
church  at  Kioto  which  quickly  became  important 
and  was  soon  recognized  as  the  principal  church  of 
the  Japanese  Christians.  It  was  called  Nan  Banji. 
From  that  time  the  new  faith  spread  quickly 
through  the  provinces  adjacent  to  the  capital. 
Many  of  the  Daimios  became  Christians,  and  assumed 
Christian  names.  The  Dominicans,  Augustinians, 
and  Franciscans,  following  the  example  set  by  the 
Jesuits,  founded  settlements  in  different  parts  of  the 
Empire,  and  carried  on  their  missionary  work  with 
great  zeal.  According  to  one  account  the  Christians 
increased  to  half  a  million,  according  to  another,  even 
to  a  million  and  a  half. 

But  a  thorough  set  back  soon  occurred. 

The  Daimios,  whom  the  Jesuits  had  converted  to 

1  Nan=southerly,  Ban=barbarians,  Ji=church. 



their  faith,  became  infected  with  the  spirit  of  the 
inquisition  and  began  to  persecute  those  of  their 
vassals  who  refused  to  become  Christians.  And 
therefore  they  aroused  the  hatred*  of  the  tolerant 
Japanese  people.  It  seemed  almost  certain  that  the 
Jesuits  had  it  in  mind  to  bring  the  Japanese  Empire 
under  Spanish  rule.  In  any  case  they  awoke  the 
suspicion  of  Toyotomi  Hideyoshi  and  particularly  of 
the  far-sighted  Tokugawa  Ieyasu,  who  forbade  the 
farther  spread  of  Christianity. 

But  the  active  commercial  relations  of  Japan  with 
Europe  rendered  it  easy  for  the  Jesuits,  in  spite  of 
the  prohibition,  to  enter  the  country  disguised  as 
merchants  and  prosecute  their  activities.  Therefore 
Hidetata,  Ieyasu's  successor,  decided  that  all  prose- 
lytizers  should  be  put  to  death. 

Iemitsu,  the  3rd  Shogun,  finally  forbade  all 
commercial  intercourse  with  foreign  lands.  Portu- 
gese merchants  were  banished  for  ever.  Only  the 
Dutch  who  carried  on  no  missionary  work  and  were 
known  to  be  enemies  of  the  Jesuits,  were  permitted 
to  continue  trading.  Great  cruelty  was  practised 
towards  the  native  Christians.  They  were  crucified, 
burnt,  starved,  or  executed  in  other  sorts  of  cruel 
ways  by  thousands. 

The  rebellion  of  the  Christians  on  the  island  of 
Amakusa  in  1637  was  connected  with  these 
measures  of  the  government.  Masuda  Tokisada 
whose  father  had  been  a  deadly  foe  of  the  Tokugawa 
family,  was  the  leader  of  the  rising.  Masuda 
Tokisada   shared   his   father's   feelings,  and   at   the 

Jesuits  in  Japan 


same  time  cherished  the  ambition  of  making  himself 
an  independent  prince  over  a  larger  part  of  the 
Empire.  In  order  to  gain  the  people's  support,  he, 
by  means  of  all  sorts  of  cunning  devices  and  miracles 
which  he  had  learned  from  the  Europeans,  gave 
himself  out  as  God,  and  was  supported  by  the 
Christians  whom  he  instigated  to  rise  against  the 
hostile  Shogunate.  He  soon  conquered  the  whole 
island  of  Amakusa,  allied  himself  with  the  inhabitants 
of  the  peninsula  of  Shimabara,  murdered  its  governor 
and  with  37,000  men  occupied  the  fortress  of  Hara. 
The  Shogunate  sent  an  army  against  him  under 
General  Itakura  Shigemasa.  He  was  unsuccessful, 
fell  later  into  disfavour,  and  sought  and  found  death 
in  battle.  His  successor,  Matsudaira  Nobutsuna, 
subdued  the  rebellious  province.  Masuda  Tokisada 
was  executed,  and  a  terrible  massacre  of  the 
Christians  took  place. 

After  this  war,  the  government  took  thorough 
means  to  prevent  the  revival  of  Christianity  in  the 
land.  Large  rewards  were  publicly  offered  every- 
where for  the  denunciation  of  a  Christian.  The 
authorities  in  town  and  country  were  ordered  to  use 
all  possible  means  of  tracking  out  Christians.  If  a 
Christian  was  seized,  two  courses  were  open  to  him  : 
to  return  to  Buddhism  or  to  die.  To  the  end  of  the 
Tokugawa  Shogunate  there  was  a  decree  in  all 
districts  suspected  of  Christianity  that  every  new 
born  child  must,  within  a  fixed  period  after  his  birth, 
trample  upon  a  crucifix.  Intercourse  with  Europe 
was  strictly  forbidden.       European   books  were  not 


allowed  to  be  introduced  into  the  land.  All  the 
ports  were  closed.  But  Nagasaki  remained  open  to 
the  Dutch. 

The  government  made  great  sacrifices  in  order  to 
prevent  the  Christianizing  of  the  country.  They  sacri- 
ficed in  most  cruel  fashion  the  lives  of  many  subjects, 
and  renounced  the  advantages  accruing  from  their 
flourishing  trade  with  foreign  lands.  They  were  not 
actuated  by  intolerance  or  by  hatred  of  the  foreigner, 
but  believed  that  they  owed  these  sacrifices  to  the  in- 
terests of  the  state.  And  in  fact  it  was  a  matter  of 
the  greatest  importance  for  the  political  life  and  the 
civilization  of  Japan.  How  different  would  have  been 
its  future  if  the  Jesuits  had  won  over  the  whole  land 
to  Catholicism,  and  similarly  the  Christianizing  of 
.Japan  would  have  reacted  on  European  affairs. 





Ieyasu's  son  and  grandson  were  worthy  of  their  pre- 
decessor. They  were  capable  rulers  and  completed 
the  administrative  reforms  begun  by  Ieyasu.  The 
government  of  the  4th  Shogun  was  also  at  first 
very  successful,  for  he  had  an  excellent  treasurer. 
That  he,  himself,  however,  was  a  weak  ruler,  became 
evident  after  the  deaths  of  his  trusty  counsellors,  Mat- 
sudaira  Nobutsune  and  Abe  Tadaaki.  The  5th 
Sh5gun,  Tsunayoshi  ( 168 1- 1709),  brother  of  the  4th 
Shogun,  showed  little  interest  in  or  understanding  of 
the  task  of  administration,  but  he  was  distinguished 
for  his  learning,  and  promoted  art  and  science. 

Under  Ieyasu's  rule  the  teaching  of  Confucius  had 
undergone  a  revival.  His  adviser,  Hayashi  Doshun, 
was  a  zealous  advocate  of  it.  Under  Tsunayoshi,  the 
fifth  Shogun,  Nobuatsu,  Hayashi  Doshun's  grandson, 
was  appointed  Daigaku-no-kami,1  with  the  statement 

1  i.e.  Director  of  the  University  of  Yedo  which  bears  the 
name  Daigaku. 


that  the  office  should  become  hereditary  in  his  family. 
So  the  Daigaku  became  the  headquarters  of  Confucian- 
ism, and  produced  many  famous  men.  The  Con- 
fucians were  divided  into  three  different  schools,  the 
heads  of  which  were  respectively  Hayashi  Daigaku- 
no-kami,  Nakae  Toju  and  It5  Jinsai. 

Science  and  literature  flourished  among  the  fol- 
lowers of  Confucius,  and  were  honoured  and  promoted 
under  the  Tokugawa  Shogunate.  Keichu,  a  Buddhist 
priest,  occupied  himself  with  classical  Japanese  litera- 
ture; Kitamura  Kigin  studied  mediaeval  Japanese 
writings  and  the  Japanese  script,  and  wrote  com- 
mentaries on  Japanese  literary  works.  These  studies 
were  the  forerunner  of  a  gieat  revival  of  the  classical 
literature  of  Japan  which  was  to  take  a  large  part  in 
the  intellectual  and  political  reorganization  of  the 
Japanese  nation. 

The  feudal  prince  of  Mito,  son  of  Ieyashu's 
youngest  son,  wrote  his  "  Dainihonshi,"  i.e.,  a  history 
of  great  Japan ;  it  begins  with  the  time  of  the  first 
Emperor  and  goes  up  to  Go-Daigo-Tenno,  the  96th 
Emperor,  and  explains  the  Japanese  forms  of  govern- 
ment. The  work  awoke  an  historical  sense,  and  is,  as 
we  shall  see,  the  origin  of  the  movement  for  restoring 
the  power  of  the  Emperor. 

Chikamatsu  Monzaimon  was  a  celebrated  dramatist 
of  this  time.  Among  the  song  writers,  Matsuo  Basho 
was  most  prominent,  and  he  introduced  a  new  metre 
of  lines  of  seventeen  feet  into  the  literature.  During 
the  long  period  of  peace,  the  artistic  and  serene  tem- 
perament of  the  Japanese  came  more  to  the   front. 


Great  care  was  given  to  fine  clothes,  beautiful  utensils 
and  valuable  jewellery.  New  kinds  of  amusement 
were  introduced.  The  Japanese  opera  N5  came  into 
being,  the  Japanese  Cabaret,  Joruri,  and  the  Japanese 
theatre,  Shibai. 

Painting  flourished  exceedingly.  Kano  Tanniu, 
Tosa  Mitsuoki,  Iwasa  Matabei  and  Hishikawa  Moro- 
nobu  were  among  the  celebrated  painters ;  the  two 
last  founded  a  new  school,  the  Ukiyoe,  who  took  the 
proceedings  of  daily  life  for  the  subjects  of  their  work, 
while  formerly  only  landscapes  and  portraits  had  been 
painted.  Ogata  Korin  must  also  be  mentioned,  after 
whom  the  Korin  school  was  named. 

Yedo,  the  capital  of  the  Shogunate,  which  was  be- 
coming more  and  more  a  great  city,  was  the  centre 
of  political  and  intellectual  life.  The  Shoguns  made 
good  roads  from  the  town  out  into  the  country.  The 
5th  ShSgun  established  a  regular  line  of  shipsfrom  Yedo 
to  the  provinces  of  Mutsu  and  Dewa,  and  he  made 
numerous  canals  which  intersected  the  city.  He  also 
built  an  aqueduct  which  provided  the  town  with  water 
from  the  river  Tamagawa. 

The  river  Yodo  that  flows  into  the  sea  at  Osaka, 
was  made  navigable  far  inland. 

The  peace  which  the  Tokugawa  Shogunate  gave 
Japan  resulted  in  the  beginning  of  general  economic 
progress.  The  people  were  able  to  recover  from  the 
great  exhaustion  consequent  on  the  long  wars  of  the 
Kamakura  and  Ashikaga  period.  Yet  the  reign  of 
the  5th  Shogun  was  not  suited  in  many  respects  to 
forward   the  development  that  was  going  on.      His 


personal  merit  lay  solely  in  the  realms  of  science  and 
art.  The  establishment  of  new  lines  of  communica- 
tion under  his  rule  is  to  be  ascribed  rather  to  in- 
dividual officials  of  capability  than  to  him.  He  himself 
took  little  interest  in  the  business  of  government. 
His  extravagant  court  ruined  the  finance  of  the  state. 
His  need  of  money  led  him  to  have  the  coins  of  the 
Keicho  years  melted  down,  and  replaced  by  a  new 
coinage  of  less  value.  The  new  coins  which  contained 
only  half  the  amount  of  real  metal  of  the  former  ones, 
decreased  in  value,  and  so  large  classes  of  the  people 
were  injured.  His  successors  therefore  won  all  the 
more  merit  in  the  Japanese  Empire. 




The  next  Sh5gun,  Ienobu  ( 1709-17 12),  nephew  of  his 
predecessor,  made  Arai  Hakuseki  the  celebrated 
scholar  and  statesman,  his  adviser.  He  retained  the 
office  with  Ienobu's  successor.  Arai  Hakuseki  set 
himself  to  remedy  the  principal  evil  of  the  government 
of  the  5th  Shogun :  the  worthless  coinage.  He 
gradually  called  in  all  the  bad  coins  and  had  new 
ones  of  full  value  minted.  In  order  to  prevent  the 
country  from  being  too  much  drained  of  gold  and 
silver  by  the  Dutch,  the  importation  of  European 
goods  was  limited.  He  effected  that  there  should  be 
more  outward  recognition  of  the  dignity  of  the  Sho- 
gunate :  that  is  to  say  the  custom  of  stating  at  the 
ceremony  on  the  reception  of  the  royal  ambassador 
from  Korea,  that  his  master  held  a  higher  rank  than 
the  ShSgun,  fell  into  abeyance.  Also  by  his  advice 
the  custom  introduced  by  Ieyasu  that  only  the  suc- 
cessor to  the  throne  and  the  three  Miya,  the  three 
branch  lines  of  the  Imperial  house,  should  found 
families,  and  all  the  rest  of  the  princes  and  princesses 
should  spend  their  days  in  Buddhist  monasteries,  was 


abandoned.  So  Prince  Naohito,  son  of  Higashiyama- 
Tenno  (1686- 1709),  founded  a  family  of  his  own,  the 
Kanin-no-miya,1  from  which  the  present  Emperor  of 
Japan  is  descended. 

Ietsugu  (1713-1716),  the  7th  Shogun,  died  without 
issue.  The  8th  Shogun  was  Yoshimune  (17 16- 1745), 
great-grandson  of  Ieyasu  and  son  of  the  Daimio  of 
Kii.  He  had  a  quiet  and  prosperous  reign,  preferred 
a  simple  court  life,  and  encouraged  economy  through- 
out the  Empire.  He  especially  sought  to  check  the 
extravagant  life  of  the  Samurai,  and  to  lead  their 
thoughts  again  to  military  exercises. 

He  was  zealous  to  increase  the  production  of  the 
soil.  Oranges  were  cultivated  in  the  province  of  Kii 
at  this  time,  tobacco  in  the  provinces  of  Satsuma  and 
Hidachi,  and  salt  was  gathered  on  the  banks  of  the 
inland  sea  ;  the  cultivation  of  the  vine  made  great 
advancement  in  the  province  of  Kai.  Yoshimune 
also  planted  a  kind  of  potato  in  the  plain  of  Kanto, 
and  the  sugar-cane  on  the  island  of  Shikoku.  He 
encouraged  textile  industries,  and  founded  botanical 
gardens  and  a  sanatorium  at  Yedo. 

He  understood  men,  and  recognised  talent  in  his 
officials.  He  raised  Ooka  Todasuke  from  a  subordin- 
ate post  to  be  mayor  of  Yedo  (Edo-machi-bugio)  and 
finally  made  him  a  Daimi5.  With  his  help  he  carried 
out  important  reforms  in  the  administration  of  justice; 
the  so-called  100  articles  of  Ieyasu  are  the  result  of 
his  energy. 

1  Miya  =  imperial  family. 


Yoshimune  was  himself  a  good  scholar ;  he  was  a 
student  of  astronomy  and  invented  astronomical 
instruments.  He  invited  Muro  Kiuso,  a  distinguished 
student  of  Chinese  literature  to  his  court,  and  com- 
missioned him  to  write  ethical  books  for  the  people. 
He  also  sought  the  society  of  Ogiu  Sorai  who  was 
celebrated  for  his  knowledge  of  Chinese  literature. 
It  was  at  this  time  of  the  encouragement  of  learning 
that  the  revival  of  the  classical  literature  of  Japan 
began  with  Kada  Azumamaro,  of  which  we  shall  treat 
later  in  greater  detail.  Yoshimune  even  turned  his 
attention  to  European  culture.  He  allowed  one  of 
his  officials  at  Nagasaki  to  learn  Dutch,  and  removed 
the  prohibition  on  the  importation  of  European  books. 
From  that  time  Dutch  began  to  be  more  and  more 
studied,  and  thus  the  influence  of  European  learning 
began  to  penetrate  gradually  into  Japan,  especially 
in  the  departments  of  medicine  and  of  the  arts  of  war. 
But  Yoshimune  feared  a  closer  alliance  with  Europe, 
chiefly  from  conservative  leanings,  and  reverence  for 
the  laws  of  his  ancestors.  But  another  cause  was 
fear  of  a  renewal  of  the  missionary  activity  of  the 
Jesuits  and  of  the  conspiracies  of  Japanese  Christians 
supported  by  the  Catholic  powers,  and  of  the  Spanish 
desire  for  conquest.  The  Dutch,  naturally,  did 
nothing  to  prevent  the  exclusion  of  Europeans,  as 
they  greatly  desired  to  keep  the  Japan  trade  entirely 
to  themselves. 



The  8th  Shogun,  Yoshimune,  was  succeeded  by  his 
son  Ieshige  (i 745-1 762).  He  was  sickly  and  a  weak 
ruler  and  his  reign  was  marked  by  many  abuses.  He 
was  succeeded  by  his  son  Ieharu  (1762- 1786)  who 
left  the  business  of  state  to  his  two  favourites,  the 
treasurer,  Tanuma  Okitsugu,  and  his  son  Okitomo. 
Both  were  avaricious  place-hunters  who  accepted 
bribes,  and  farmed  the  taxes  and  greatly  injured  the 
government  and  the  authority  of  the  Shogunate. 
During  their  reign  the  land  was  assailed  by  dire 
natural  events  such  as  floods,  earthquakes,  conflagra- 
tions and  volcanic  eruptions.  The  government  took 
no  measures  to  alleviate  the  distress,  and  a  universal 
oppressive  famine  was  the  result.  Hatred  of  the  two 
favourites  grew  more  bitter,  and  at  last  Okitomo  was 
murdered  in  the  Shogun's  palace,  and  his  father 
Okitsugu  had  to  abdicate. 

Ieharu  died  without  issue  in  1786  and  was  succeeded 
by  Ienari  (1786- 1838),  the  grandson  of  a  younger 
son  of  Yoshimune. 

As  Ienari  was  very  young,  his  relative,  Matsudaira 
Sadanobu,    the    treasurer,   an   admirable   statesman, 


governed  for  him.  With  his  reign  Japan  entered  on 
a  happier  period,  and  as  there  was  then  a  very  clever 
Emperor,  KSkaku-Tenno  (1780-18 17),  the  age  is 
generally  spoken  of  as  that  of  the  wise  Emperor  in  the 
west  (Ki5to),  and  of  the  clever  treasurer  in  the  east 
(Yedo).  Matsudaira  Sadanobu  carried  on  the  plans 
and  efforts  of  the  8th  Shogun,  Yoshimune.  He 
pursued  a  policy  of  economy,  and  tried  particularly 
to  dissuade  the  Samurai  from  their  extravagant  and 
luxurious  way  of  living,  and  to  induce  them  to  pay 
their  debts.  He  encouraged  science  and  education, 
and  promoted  universities  and  schools.  He  kept  up 
good  relations  with  the  imperial  court,  and  built  a 
new  palace  for  the  Emperor. 

He  abdicated  after  6  years,  and  Ienari  who  was 
now  of  age,  took  over  the  government  himself.  The 
Emperor  appointed  him  Dijodaizin.  This  was  the 
end  of  the  brilliant  period  of  the  Tokugawa  Shogunate. 

Famous  painters  like  Maruyama  Okio  and 
Katsushika  Hokusai  flourished  at  this  time. 
Literature  was  also  of  great  excellence,  especially  in 
the  domain  of  fiction.  The  people  reached  a  high 
level  of  cultivation  through  a  well  developed  system 
of  elementary  schools.  That  education  was  soon  to 
prove  of  great  practical  importance  ;  the  nation  was 
now  ripe  to  take  part  in  the  great  political  questions 
which  were  acute  at  this  time. 

Ienari  abdicated  in  1838  after  a  reign  of  over  50 
years.  His  descendants  were  unable  to  ward  off  the 
attacks  which  had  for  some  time  been  preparing 
against  the  authority  of  the  Shogunate. 


THE     AWAKENING     OF     A     PUBLIC      OPINION.       IN- 

The  revival  of  learning  during  the  peace  that  reigned 
under  the  Tokugawa  Shogunate,  resulted,  as  we 
have  already  indicated,  in  the  renaissance  of  the  old 
classical  literature  of  Japan.  In  the  time  of  the  8th 
Shogun  (1716-1745),  Kada  Azumamaro  awoke 
interest  in  the  Kojiki,  the  oldest  work  of  importance, 
the  Homer  of  the  Japanese,  in  which  the  divine 
descent  and  the  first  great  deeds  of  the  Japanese 
Emperors  were  celebrated.  His  studies  were  carried 
on  by  his  pupil,  Kamo  Mabuchi.  But  Kamo  Mabuchi's 
pupil,  Motoori  Norinaga  went  farther  than  the  others, 
and  his  work  was  the  commentary  of  the  Kojiki  held 
now  as  representative.  He  there  describes  the  ancient 
form  of  government,  demonstrates  especially  how  the 
Japanese  imperial  family  has  reigned  uninterruptedly 
from  the  earliest  times,  and  he  awoke  the  con- 
sciousness of  the  Japanese  people  to  the  ancient 
honour  and  dignity  of  the  imperial  dynasty.  He 
had  a  distinguished  pupil,  Hirata  Atsutane,  who  was 
the  reformer  of  the  old  ancestor-worship  which  from 


this  time  onward  was  called  Shintoism.  These  four 
men  were  called  the  four  Ushi1  of  Shintoism.  Their 
writings  were  very  widely  read,  and  they  found 
everywhere  enthusiastic  disciples  and  pupils. 

This  activity  in  matters  of  historical  learning  had 
great  practical  results.  The  opinion  became  general 
that  the  Emperor  must  be  restored  to  his  ancient 
power  and  position,  and  that  the  authority  of  the 
Shogunate  which  really  rested  on  usurpation,  must 
be  destroyed.  To  advocate  this  course  the  historian 
Rai  Sanyo  wrote  his  "  Nihongaishi  "  (Japanese  private 
history).1  The  book  deals  with  feudal  history  from 
the  Kamakura  period  to  the  Tokugawa  Shogunate, 
and  is  very  hostile  to  the  feudal  system.  The 
work  was  eagerly  read  and  understood.  Everyone 
knew  that  Rai  Sanyo's  attacks  on  the  Minamoto  and 
the  Taira  really  pointed  at  the  ruling  Tokugawa,  and 
so  the  discontent  with  the  prevailing  regime  increased 
every  day. 

Two  Samurai  of  low  rank,  Takeuchi  Shikibu  and 
Yamagata  Daini,  attempted  to  set  on  foot  a  practical 
reorganization  of  the  present  conditions.  Under  the 
9th  Shogun,  Takeuchi  Shikibu  went  to  Kioto,  and 
tried  to  induce  the  imperial  court  officials  to  make 
use  of  public  opinion  and  shake  off  the  authority  of 
the  ShSgunate.  The  government  at  Yedo  saw 
through  his  plot,  and  sent  him  into  exile.  Under  the 
10th  Shogun,  Yamagata  carried  on  the  plan,  and  .the 

1  Great  men. 

8  History  written  by  a  private  individual,  in  contrast  to  the 
official  histories, 


Shogun  made  him  pay  with  his  life  for  his  alliance 
with  Takeuchi  and  others  of  a  similar  way  of  thinking. 
But  even  these  strong  measures  could  not  protect  the 
Sh5gunate  from  the  prevailing  efforts.  Men  arose  in 
all  parts  of  the  Empire  who  carried  on  a  violent 
agitation,  and  urged  the  people  to  rise  against  the 

Another  intellectual  tendency  was  associated  with 
that  "  public  opinion "  which  was  directed  against 
the  government  of  the  Shogunate,  and  had  its 
part  in  undermining  its  authority.  It  has  been  told 
how  from  1637  fear  of  the  Jesuits'  activity  and  of  the 
Spaniards'  desire  of  conquest  had  caused  the  exclusion 
of  Europeans  from  Japan.  Nagasaki  alone  had 
remained  open  to  the  Dutch,  and  the  8th  Shogun 
had  permitted  the  Japanese  to  learn  the  Dutch 
language,  and  allowed  the  introduction  of  Dutch 
books.  Dutch  physicians  in  Nagasaki  taught 
numbers  of  Japanese.  Those  Japanese  students  soon 
formed  an  influential  party,  which  adopted  European 
customs,  and  were  enthusiastic  at  the  idea  of  introduc- 
ing an  European  system  of  education. 

The  relations  of  Japan  with  Europe  soon  became 
a  burning  question.  In  1786  the  Russians  who  had 
already  taken  possession  of  the  whole  of  Siberia 
came  to  the  north  of  Japan,  to  the  island  of  Ezo 
(Hokkaido)  that  belonged  to  it,  and  conquered 
several  small  islands.  The  Shogunate  government 
were  again  seized  with  fear  of  European  plans  of 
conquest,  and  fortified  the  coast  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  Yedo.      They   sent   several   expeditions   to   gain 


information  about  the  northern  districts  and  frontiers 
of  the  Empire.  One  of  them  was  led  by  Mamiya. 
He  discovered  incidentally  that  Saghalien  which  had 
hitherto  been  regarded  as  a  peninsula,  was  an  island, 
and  therefore  the  straits  between  Saghalien  and  the 
mainland  were  named  the  Mamiya  Straits.  He  led 
his  expedition  as  far  as  Manchuria,  and  the  informa- 
tion he  obtained  there  is  set  down  in  the  narration  of 
his  travels.  At  that  time,  too,  In5-Chukei  made  the 
first  map  of  Japan.  The  Russians  repeated  their 
attacks  on  the  island  of  Ezo,  and  the  English  landed 
in  Kiusiu,  and  in  1808  burnt  a  village  near  Nagasaki. 
Such  events  served  to  strengthen  the  Shogunate  in 
its  principle  of  excluding  foreigners,  and  as  a  number 
of  European  merchants  penetrated  inland  from 
Nagasaki,  in  1825  the  order  went  forth  to  the  Daimios 
to  expel  all  Europeans. 

Then  the  students  who  had  learned  Dutch  and 
adopted  Dutch  civilization,  made  themselves  heard. 
They  declared  that  in  order  to  defend  themselves 
successfully  from  European  attacks,  they  must  enter 
into  closer  relations  with  Europe.  Watanabe  Kazan 
and  Takano  Choei  wrote  several  books  promulgating 
that  view.  The  government  forbade  their  publica- 
tion and  imprisoned  their  authors ;  Takano  Choei 
had  to  kill  himself.  But  their  ideas  could  not  be 
suppressed  and  spread  even  in  the  circles  of  the 
Shogunate  itself,  for  the  foreign  powers  who  urged 
more  and  more  the  opening  of  the  country,  convinced 
them  of  the  superiority  of  their  civilization  and 
especially  of  their  arms. 




The  nth  Shogun  abdicated  in  1838,  and  was 
succeeded  by  his  son  Ieyoshi  (1 838-1 853).  In  the 
beginning  of  his  reign  the  treasurer,  Mizuno  Tada- 
kuni,  attempted  to  carry  out  domestic  reforms  which 
aimed  at  strengthening  the  power  of  the  Shogunate. 
But  they  failed  completely,  and  led  to  the  fall  of  the 

His  successor  was  Abe  Masahiro,  and  on  him  fell 
the  task  of  deciding  the  foreign  question.  In  July 
1853  four  American  ships  sailed  into  the  harbour  of 
Uraga  in  th^3  province  oi  Sagami.  Their  commander, 
Admiral  Perry,  asked  the  Shogun  in  the  name  of  the 
United  States  to  make  a  commercial  treaty.  The 
Shogunate  was  uncertain,  and  asked  to  be  allowed 
to  consider  the  matter  until  the  next  year.  Two 
months  later  a  Russian  ship  sailed  into  the  har- 
bour of  Nagasaki,  and  a  Russian  envoy  asked  in 
the  name  of  his  government  for  the  conclusion  of  a 
commercial  treaty.  In  his  uncertainty,  the  treasurer 
applied  to  the  imperial  court  officials  and  the 
Daimios.     The  court  officials  and  a  large  majority  of 


the  Daimios  were  unanimous  for  continuing  to  exclude 
foreigners.  Public  opinion  was  greatly  excited  _by 
these  negociations.  It  was  clear  that  a  large 
majority  of  the  people,  and  especially  the  imperial 
party,  were  against  the  foreigners.  But,  notwith- 
standing, the  government  did  not  venture  to  give  the 
American  embassy  an  absolute  refusal.  They  feared 
that  it  might  lead  to  serious  quarrels  with  foreign 
powers,  and  even  to  the  conquest  of  the  whole 
country.  In  order  to  find  some  way  out  of  a  difficult 
position,  they  decided  to  open  to  the  Americans  the 
two  worst  harbours  in  the  country,  Shimoda  in  the 
province  of  Izu,  and  Hakodate  in  the  island  of  Ezo 
(or  Hokkaido).  A  provisional  treaty  was  made  with 
Perry,  31st  March,  1854,  who  had  reappeared  with  a 
flotilla  of  seven  ships,  at  Uraga.  Treaties  soon 
followed  with  Russia,  England  and  Holland,  and  the 
same  ports  were  opened  to  those  countries. 

These  measures  of  the  government  called  forth  a 
storm  of  indignation  from  the  people,  especially  from 
the  imperial  party  who  sought  to  make  use  of  the 
general  dislike  of  foreigners  and  the  Shogunate  for 
the  attainment  of  their  goal :  the  restoration  of  the 
imperial  family  to  its  original  position  of  power. 
The  small  party  friendly  to  the  Europeans  which 
was  utterly  opposed  to  the  imperial  party  possessed 
too  little  actual  power  for  the  Shogunate  to  find  their 
support  of  real  help. 

The  Sh5gun  was  Iesada,  son  of  the  12th  ShSgun 
who  had  died  in  1853.  His  aged  treasurer,  Abe 
Masahiro,  felt  no  longer  able  to  support  the  tasks 


awaiting  the  government  and  resigned.  His  suc- 
cessor was  the  Daimio,  Hotta  Masahiro,  who  be- 
longed to  the  European  party  and  was  in  favour  of 
opening  all  the  trading  ports.  When  in  1856  the 
United  States  sent  a  consul  in  the  person  of  Harris 
Kam  with  the  commission  to  obtain  a  definitely 
better  treaty  of  commerce,  Hotta  Masahiro  received 
him  as  he  wished  at  Yedo,  and  introduced  him  to 
the  Shogun  in  person,  a  proceeding  quite  at  variance 
with  prevailing  custom.  He,  moreover,  appointed  a 
commission  for  the  purpose  of  working  out  a  treaty 
of  commerce,  which  held  its  meetings  in  the  Shogun's 
palace.  In  1858  a  treaty  was  concluded  with  the 
United  States  by  the  articles  of  which  the  best  ports 
were  opened  to  them,  and  which  remained  the  basis 
for  all  commercial  treaties  with  that  power  until 
The  principal  articles  of  the  treaty  were  : — 

1.  Japan  and  the  United  States  of  America  were 
henceforth  to  cultivate  friendly  relations  with 
each  other. 

3.  Besides  the  ports  of  Shimoda  and  Hakodate,  the 

following  ports  were  to  be  open  to  the  United 
States:  Kanagawa  (Yokohama),  4  July,  1859; 
Nagasaki,  4  July,  1859;  Niigata,  1  January, 
i860  ;  Hiogo  (Kobe),  1  January,  1863.  Shimoda 
was  closed  6  months  after  the  opening 

4.  The  Japanese   government  to  levy  duties  on  im- 

ports and  exports. 



6.  The   Americans  to  be   under  the  jurisdiction   of 

their   own   consular   courts,  and   not  under  the 
Japanese  courts  of  law. 

7.  The  Americans  to  move  freely  in  the  neighbour- 

hood of  the  open    ports   in   a   space   of  about 
25  miles. 

8.  Religious     tolerance     to     be    extended     to    the 

Americans   in   the   regions   open   to   them. 

9.  The  Japanese  government  to  extradite  American 


10.  The  United  States  to  be  willing  to  sell  ships  of 

war,  steamers  and  arms  to  the  Japanese  govern- 
ment, and   to   place   at   its  disposal  instructors, 
officers  and  artisans. 
14.  The  treaty  to  be  valid  from  4  July,  1859. 

In  order  to  be  legal,  the  treaty  required  the 
signature  of  the  Emperor.  But  at  that  time  the 
imperial  capital,  Kioto,  was  the  seat  of  the  chief 
leaders  of  the  imperial  party.  They  zealously  worked 
for  the  removal  of  the  Shogunate,  and  sought  to 
make  opposition  to  the  foreigners  serve  their  purpose, 
while  for  their  part  they  supported  the  entire  ex- 
clusion of  foreigners.  The  Emperor  refused  his 
signature,  although  Hotta  Masahiro  asked  for  a 
personal  audience.     Therefore  Hotta  resigned. 

His  successor,  Ii  Naosuke,  a  courageous  and 
talented  man,  fully  shared  his  predecessor's  convic- 
tions. In  1858  he  finally  concluded  the  treaty  of 
commerce  dispensing  with  the  Emperor's  signature, 
and  opened  the  ports   agreed   upon   to  the   United 


States.  He  soon  made  similar  treaties  with  Russia, 
England,  Holland,  France  and  Prussia,  likewise 
against  the  desire  of  the  Emperor. 

Therefore  he  was  the  best  hated  man  in  the 
Empire.  It  chanced  that  the  young  Shogun  died 
just  then.  The  Lord  High  Treasurer  summoned  the 
next  heir,  the  13  year  old  grandson  of  the  nth 
Shogun,  from  the  province  of  Kii,  and  made  him 
Shogun.  This  proceeding  of  Ii  was  violently 
attacked  by  the  Daimios.  It  was  thought  to  point 
to  a  desire  for  sole  authority,  and  that  for  that 
purpose  he  had  made  a  Tokugawa,  who  was  a  minor, 
Shogun.  The  vassals  and  friends  of  the  Daimio  of 
Mito  who  was  a  Tokugawa,  and  whose  family  had 
long  possessed  the  hereditary  title  of  Vice-Shogun, 
specially  agitated  against  the  Lord  High  Treasurer, 
and  tried  to  make  Tokugawa  Yoshinobu,  the  grown- 
up son  of  the  Vice-Shogun,  Shogun.  As  he  belonged 
to  the  imperial  party,  he  won  strong  support.  A  con- 
spiracy was  formed  between  the  imperial  court 
officials,  and  the  DaimiSs  who  belonged  to  the 
imperial  party,  for  the  purpose  of  driving  out  all 
foreigners  through  the  Vice-Sh6gun.  But  Ii  dis- 
covered the  plot,  took  the  chief  leaders  prisoner, 
and  condemned  them  to  incarceration ;  on  some  of 
them  the  sentence  of  harakiri  was  passed.  These 
severe  measures  only  served  to  increase  the  hatred 
borne  him.  The  following  year,  i860,  he  was 
murdered  by  Samurai  at  the  Sakurada  gate  as  he 
was  about  to  enter  the  Shogunate  palace. 

Samurai  and  Ronin,  hostile  to  the  ShSgunate,  also 


made  numerous  attempts  against  foreigners  at  this 

Ii's  successor,  the  treasurer  Ando  Nobumasa,  con- 
tinued a  policy  of  friendly  relations  with  Europeans. 
But  recognising  the  weakness  of  the  Shogunate,  he 
thought  of  reconciliation  with  the  imperial  court.  In 
1862  he  sent  an  embassy  to  Europe  and  America 
to  negociate  a  delay  in  the  time  fixed  for  the  open- 
ing of  some  of  the  ports.  He  married  the  young 
Shogun  to  an  imperial  princess,  and  by  so  doing 
increased  the  bitter  hatred  of  his  enemies.  He  was 
attacked  and  seriously  wounded  in  the  Shogunate 

Thus  the  imperial  party  were  successful  in  using 
the  complications  that  arose  out  of  the  foreign  policy 
to  bring  about  the  fall  of  the  Shogunate. 



MEANWHILE  a  large  number  of  Daimios  and  Samurai 
who  were  discontented  and  inclined  to  the  imperial 
party,  had  gathered  in  the  imperial  capital,  Kioto. 
They  criticised  openly  and  severely  the  government 
of  the  Shogunate.  Foreign  policy  came  in  for  a  large 
share  of  blame,  and  they  demanded  the  overthrow 
of  the  Shogunate,  and  the  restoration  of  the  legitimate 
imperial  government.  The  imperial  court  officials 
naturally  sympathized  with  these  views.  In  1862  in 
the  name  of  the  Emperor  they  invited  the  Shogun  to 
come  to  Kioto,  to  drive  out  the  foreigners,  and  to 
carry  out  various  reforms,  especially  that  of  the 
Shogunate  government.  The  Emperor  ordered  the 
Daimios  to  drive  out  all  foreigners. 

Naturally  the  Shogun  did  not  obey,  but  he  had  no 
power  to  prevent  the  imperial  party  from  proceeding 
against  foreigners.  The  American  and  the  English 
embassies  at  Yedo  were  burnt  down.  By  order  of 
the  Daimio  of  Nagato  (Choshu)  an  American  ship 
was  fired  at  from  the  Bakan  fort,   10th  May,  1803,  a 

Samurai  at  the  End  of  the  Tokugawa  Period 

[Face  p.  184 


French  ship,  23rd  May,  a  Dutch  one,  26th  May,  an 
American,  1st  June,  and  a  French,  5th  June,  when 
passing  through  the  Bakan  straits.  His  act  resulted 
in  the  bombardment  of  the  Bakan  fort,  5th-8th  August, 
1863,  by  a  fleet  consisting  of  9  English,  3  French,  1 
American  and  4  Dutch  men  of  war.  The  fort  was 
taken,  and  the  Daimio  was  compelled  to  sue  for 
peace.  The  confederate  powers  demanded  as  in- 
demnity three  million  pounds  sterling  from  the 
ShSgunate  government.  It  paid  the  sum  in  order 
to  avoid  a  dangerous  war. 

The  year  before,  1862,  an  Englishman  named 
Richardson  was  murdered  by  the  retainers  of  Shimatsu 
Saburo,  brother  of  the  Daimi5  of  Satsuma,  while 
accompanying  him  on  his  return  from  Yedo,  because 
he  had  not  paid  the  prince  the  customary  homage. 
When  the  English  were  informed  of  the  murder,  they 
demanded  that  Shimatsu  Saburo  should  be  delivered 
up  to  them.  As  this  was  refused,  their  fleet,  in  July, 
1863,  bombarded  and  destroyed  Kugoshima,  the  port 
of  the  princedom  of  Satsuma.  Satsuma  sued  for 
peace  and  declared  itself  willing  to  pay  the  heavy 
sum  of  £25,000  demanded  by  the  English  as  com- 
pensation. The  Shogunate  made  its  apologies  for  the 
occurrence,  and  paid  £100,000  as  idemnity. 

If  then  war  was  avoided  by  the  sensible  policy  of 
the  Shogunate,  a  greater  danger  was  threatened  by 
the  ultra-imperial  party  which  ruled  the  Emperor's 
court  and  ,  the  imperial  capital  and  surrounding 
territory.  In  its  blind  hatred  of  the  foreigner  it 
would  have   plunged    the  country   into   the  greatest 


perils  had  not  the  Shogunate  warned  the  Emperor 
of  the  dangerous  doings  of  those  people,  and  so 
brought  about  a  change  in  the  imperial  policy 
towards  foreigners. 

Matsudaira  Katamori,  prince  of  Aizu,  a  relation 
and  adherent  of  the  Shogun,  a  man  of  education 
and  enlightment,  and  a  friend  of  Europe,  went 
to  Kioto  and  allied  himself  with  the  imperial 
court.  He  gained  the  help  of  a  prince  of  the  imperial 
family.  Through  him  the  Emperor  was  informed  of 
recent  events,  and  was  shown  how  dangerous  it  was 
to  continue  the  policy  of  hostility  to  the  foreigner,  and 
how  much  wiser  it  would  be  to  encourage  friendly 
intercourse  which  would  be  advantageous  to  the  well- 
being  of  the  country.  His  warning  did  not  fail  to 
have  effect.  The  Emperor  recognized  that  he  must 
change  his  policy  in  regard  to  the  foreigner,  if  he  did 
not  wish  to  bring  great  disasters  on  the  whole  empire. 
He  was  ready  to  take  on  himself  the  responsibility 
and  the  consequences  with  regard  to  the  Sh5gunate 
on  the  one  hand,  and  the  ultra-imperial  party  on  the 
other.  In  September,  1863,  he  sent  the  prince  of 
Nagato,  an  extremist  of  the  imperial  party,  into  exile. 
Seven  imperial  court  officials  who  had  supported 
Nagato,  had  to  flee.  The  prince  of  Satsuma  supported 
this  important  change  in  the  imperial  policy,  made  an 
alliance  with  Matsudaira  Katamori  and  entered  into 
friendly  relations  with  various  foreigners.  The  Emperor 
even  determined  to  make  use  of  the  military  power 
of  the  ShSgunate.  He  transferred  the  custody  of  the 
imperial  capital  and  of  the  imperial  palace,  Matsudaira 


Katamori,  to  his  Shogunate  troops  and  his  ally,  the 
prince  of  Satsuma.  In  1865  against  the  will  of 
the  imperial  government,  he  acknowledged  the  treaty 
of  commerce  that  had  been  made  by  the  Shogunate 
in  1858  with  foreign  powers.  The  imperial  court 
itself  entered  into  friendly  relations  with  individual 
Europeans.  The  prince  of  Satsuma  successfully 
convinced  many  Daimios  how  unfounded  was  their 
dislike  of  the  foreigner.  Hatred  of  the  foreigner 
decreased  more  and  more  in  the  imperial  party, 
especially  when  the  embassy  sent  to  Europe  and 
America  in  1862  returned,  full  of  praise  of  European 
civilization.  It  seemed  as  if  the  continuance  of  the 
Shogunate's  authority  was  assured,  since  it  had  once 
more  gained  a  remarkable  victory  in  the  domain  of 

But  the  Daimio  of  Nagato  was  its  implacable 
enemy  ;  he  was  meditating  revenge  for  his  exile  that 
had  been  effected  by  Matsudaira  Katamori.  His 
vassals  undertook  in  July,  1864,  an  attack  on  the 
imperial  capital  that  was  only  overcome  with  difficulty 
by  Matsudaira  Katamori  and  the  Daimio  of  Satsuma. 
When  in  June,  1866,  the  Shogunate  sent  an  army 
against  Nagato  in  order  to  crush  him  finally,  it  was 
seen  how  greatly  the  military  power  of  the  Tokugawa 
was  weakened.  The  troops  could  do  nothing,  and 
had  to  return  without  having  accomplished  their 
mission,  a  circumstance  that  meant  injury  to  the 
position  of  the  Shogunate. 

The  Shogun  died  in  August,  1866,  and  the 
Emperor    in    December   of  the    same    year.       The 


Sh6gun's  successor  was  Tokugawa  Yoshinobu,  son 
of  the  Vice-Shogun  at  Mito.  The  present  Emperor 
Mutsuhito  ascended  the  imperial  throne  in  1867. 

The  almost  simultaneous  deaths  of  the  Emperor 
and  the  Shogun  were  a  cause  of  weakness  in  the  political 
situation,  and  the  leaders  of  the  imperial  party  felt 
they  must  use  it  for  the  prosecution  of  their  aims. 

In  1865  the  two  most  powerful  vassals  of  the 
DaimiS  of  Satsuma,  the  knights  Saigo  Takamori 
and  Okubo  Toshimichi,  both  holding  the  views  of 
the  imperial  party,  had  entered  into  a  secret  alliance 
with  a  vassal  of  the  prince  of  Nagato,  the  Samurai 
Kido  Takayoshi.  They  planned  that  Nagato  should 
again  join  with  Satsuma,  and  that  both  together 
should  abolish  the  ShSgunate,  and  restore  the 
Emperor  to  his  old  power.  The  15th  Shogun, 
Tokugawa  Yoshinobu,  was  as  we  have  seen,  a 
supporter  of  the  Emperor.  He  now  had  to  deal 
with  foreign  affairs,  and  thought  it  best  in  so  difficult 
a  situation  to  avoid  civil  war,  and  sympathising  with 
the  imperial  party  would  not  enter  into  a  struggle  on 
behalf  of  the  Shogunate  with  the  Emperor.  By  the 
advice  of  the  Daimio  of  Tosa  he  delivered  a  written 
document  to  the  Emperor,  19th  November,  1867, 
in  which  he  declared  that  he  would  place  the 
government  of  the  Shogunate  in  the  Emperor's 
hands.  The  document  that  forms  so  important  a 
turning  point  in  the  history  of  Japan  runs  as  follows  : 

"  Since  the  middle  ages  the  imperial  power 
has  been  more  and  more  diminished  through 
the   Fujiwara   family.       Later    Minamoto   Yoritomo 


assumed  the  position  of  a  Shogun,  and  brought  the 
power  of  the  government  into  the  possession  of  the 
ShSgunate.  I  regret  that  so  many  obstacles  are  in 
the  way  of  my  administration  of  the  office.  Foreign 
affairs  play  an  ever  larger  part,  and  intercourse  with 
foreign  countries  is  continually  on  the  increase.  The 
time  therefore  demands  that  our  country  should  have 
one  united  government.  Herewith  I  give  my  power 
back  into  your  majesty's  hands.  Only  when  the 
Emperor  shall  rule  over  the  whole  land,  unite  all 
classes  under  his  government  and  guard  our  father- 
land, can  our  nation  compete  with  foreign  states.  I 
thus  fulfil  my  duty  to  king  and  country." 

And  so  after  a  faineant  existence  of  683  years,  the 
Emperor  again  entered  on  the  actual  possession  of 
the  government. 

All  honour  must  be  accorded  to  the  policy  of  the 
Shogunate  from  the  time  of  Perry's  appearance  when 
the  question  of  relations  with  foreign  countries 
entered  on  a  new  stage.  Its  policy  was  guided  solely 
in  the  interests  of  the  state.  The  Shogunate  did  not 
make  the  treaty  of  commerce  from  love  of  the 
foreigner  but  from  conviction  of  the  superiority  of 
foreign  powers,  and  of  the  danger  of  quarrelling 
with  them.  The  Shogunate,  from  a  feeling  of 
responsibility  for  the  fate  of  the  Empire,  acted 
against  the  will  of  the  people  and  of  the  imperial 
court,  and  so  undermined  its  own  power.  From  the 
same  point  of  view  of  the  best  interests  of  the  state, 
the  last  Shogun  determined  to  avoid  civil  war  and 
voluntarily  to  place  his  office  in  the  Emperor's  hands. 





At  the  time  of  the  last  Shogun's  resignation, 
the  new  Emperor  was  only  fifteen  years  old,  and 
his  councillors  of  the  imperial  party  decided  all 
matters  of  state.  Their  policy  was  to  secure  the 
supremacy  of  the  imperial  party  throughout  the 
empire,  and  to  render  nugatory  any  attempt  at  a 
future  restoration  of  the  Shogunate.  Their  first  act 
was  to  replace  the  Shogunate  troops  to  whom  the 
custody  of  the  imperial  palace  and  capital  were 
entrusted  by  a  strong  imperial  army.  For  this 
purpose  peace  was  concluded  with  the  Daimid  of 
Nagato  with  whom  there  had  been  war  in  con- 
sequence of  the  change  of  imperial  policy  in  1863, 
and  who  had  a  large  military  force  at  his  disposal.  In 
December,  1867,  Matsudaira  Katamori  was  ordered 
to  withdraw  with  his  troops  from  the  imperial  palace. 
Its  custody  was  transferred  to  the  Daimi5s  of 
Satsuma  and  Tosa  and  their  friends.  Terms  of 
peace  were  offered  to  the  Daimio  of  Nagato,  and  he 
was  asked  to  come  to  the  capital  with  troops.  The 
seven  imperial  court  officials  who  had  fled  were 
recalled  and  reinstated  in  their  offices.     The  official 



imperial  proclamation  relating  to  the  new  order  of 
administration  was  published,  3rd  January,  1868.  It 
officially  put  an  end  to  the  former  Shogunate 
government,  and  it  was  solemnly  declared  that  for 
the  future  all  power  was  vested  in  the  Emperor. 
The  imperial  bureaucracy  was  newly  organized. 
The  Sosai  (president)  and  under  him  the  Gij5 
(lesser  council)  and  the  Sanyo  (greater  council) 
formed  the  head  of  the  imperial  officials.  The  Sosai 
was  Prince  Arisugawa-no-miya  Taruhito,  an  uncle  of 
the  Emperor,  the  members  of  the  lesser  council  were 
princes  and  Daimios  belonging  to  the  imperial  party, 
especially  those  of  Satsuma,  Tosa,  and  Nagato,  and 
of  the  greater  council  Samurai  of  the  imperial  party. 
None  of  the  former  Sh5gunate  officials  received  a 
post.  The  ex-Shogun,  several  of  the  Tokugawa,  and 
Matsudaira  Katamori  were  entirely  passed  over  when 
the  offices  were  filled. 

Tokugawa  Yoshinobu  and  his  adherents  naturally 
felt  the  ingratitude  of  such  conduct  on  the  part  of  the 
imperial  government,  and  were  extremely  angry. 
Yoshinobu  was  then  in  the  Shogunate  palace  at  Kioto, 
and  here  too  had  come  Matsudaira  Katamori  after 
his  withdrawal  with  his  troops  from  the  imperial 
palace.  The  troops  themselves  were  so  deeply  stirred 
at  the  injustice  shown  their  commander  that 
Yoshinobu  feared  they  might  attack  the  imperial 
palace  and  so  revenge  themselves  on  the  imperial 
party.  In  order  to  prevent  bloodshed,  notwithstand- 
ing that  he  was  himself  much  offended,  he  marched 
with  all  his  troops  to  Osaka. 


The  imperial  party  who  expected  nothing  good  of 
Yoshinobu  summoned  him  in  the  name  of  the 
Emperor  to  return  to  the  capital  without  his  army ; 
he  would  be  received  in  a  friendly  way  and  could  lead 
an  honourable  life  at  the  imperial  court. 

Discord  prevailed  in  Yoshinobu's  camp.  Yoshi- 
nobu inclined  to  the  preservation  of  peace,  and  was 
not  unwilling  to  accept  the  imperial  offer.  Matsudaira 
Katamori,  on  the  contrary,  urged  an  attack  on  the 
capital,  and  the  destruction  of  the  imperial  party  at 
court.  In  the  end  Yoshinobu  marched  to  the  capital 
with  his  whole  army. 

The  princes  of  Satsuma,  Nagato  and  Tosa  waylaid 
him  at  Fushimi,  where  fighting  took  place,  28th 
January,  1868,  in  which  the  Shogunate  troops  were 
defeated.  They  were  superior  in  numbers  but  the 
situation  became  daily  more  unfavourable  for  Yoshi- 
nobu. Prince  Ninnaji-no-miya  Yoshiaki  took  over  the 
chief  command  of  the  imperial  army.  For  the  first  time 
he  again  bore  the  insignia  of  an  imperial  general : 
Kinki,  the  brocade  banner,  and  Setto,  the  sword  of 
justice.  The  Shogunate  soldiers  became  more  and 
more  conscious  that  they  were  rebels,  and  the  number 
of  those  who  refused  to  take  up  arms  against  their 
Emperor  continually  increased.  Yoshinobu  marched 
back  to  Osaka  with  his  army  where  he  disbanded  it, 
and  fled  by  sea  to  Yedo. 

On  February  5th,  the  imperial  government 
published  a  proclamation  declaring  Tokugawa 
Yoshinobu  and  all  his  adherents  rebels,  and  depriving 
them  of  all  rights  and  honours.     Prince  Arisugawa- 


no-miya  Taruhito  now  became  commander-in-chief 
of  the  imperial  army,  and  marched  with  it  to  the 

Yoshinobu  was  tired  of  the  struggle.  He  repaired 
to  the  temple  of  Kaneiji  in  order  to  testify  his  peace- 
able and  loyal  state  of  mind,  and  implored  Arisugawa 
to  obtain  his  pardon  from  the  Emperor.  The  imperial 
army  entered  Yedo  on  April  26th  and  occupied  the 
Shogunate  palace  without  striking  a  blow. 
Yoshinobu's  life  was  spared,  and  he  was  exiled  to  his 
native  Mito.  As  his  successor  in  the  royal  house  of 
Tokugawa,  the  imperial  party  appointed  the  young 
Tokugawa  Iesato. 

But  the  civil  war  was  not  at  an  end.  A  number 
of  the  Shogun's  loyal  vassals  who  called  themselves 
Sh5gitai,  true  union,  occupied  the  park  of  the  temple 
of  Kaneiji  at  Yedo,  and  appointed  Prince  Rinoji-no- 
miya,  a  Tokugawa,  the  former  high  priest  of  the 
temple,  their  commander-in-chief.  A  fierce  battle 
was  fought  in  the  park,  on  July  4th,  in  which  the 
imperial  party  were  victors.  The  temple  with  its 
valuable  art  treasures  was  almost  entirely  destroyed. 
The  Sh5gitai  fled  to  the  territory  of  Matsudaira 
Katamori  in  the  north  of  the  Empire  where  the 
struggle  was  continued.  Matsudaira  won  the 
adherence  of  22  other  Daimi5s  of  northern  Japan,  and 
gave  the  government  a  great  deal  of  trouble  for  more 
than  6  months. 

After  defeating  the  Shogitai,  the  imperial  army 
turned  its  attention  to  the  provinces  of  Shimosa 
and  Shimozuke  where  Otori  Keisuke,  an  adherent  of 


the  Shogunate,  was  making  a  stubborn  resistance. 
After  several  battles,  only  one  of  which  ended 
favourably  for  the  ShSgunate  cause,  Otori  fled  to  the 
town  of  Aizu  where  the  prince  of  that  district, 
Matsudaira  Katamori  and  the  Daimi5s  allied  with 
him,  had  collected  their  very  considerable  forces. 

The  town  of  Aizu  is  situated  on  the  tableland  of 
Aizu  which  is  surrounded  on  all  sides  by  high 
mountains,  and  difficult  of  access  to  an  attacking 
party.  The  imperial  troops  marched  by  two  ways  to 
the  tableland  :  one  division  went  through  the  province 
of  Echigo  along  the  river  Aga-no-gawa  which  rises  in 
the  Aizu  tableland,  and  on  the  banks  of  which  the 
town  of  Aizu  is  situated  ;  the  other  marched  by  the 
hostile  fortress,  Shirakawa,  and  took  it.  In  the 
beginning  of  October  the  imperial  troops  commenced 
an  attack  on  the  town  of  Aizu.  Matsudaira's 
adherents  made  a  stubborn  resistance.  The  Biakko- 
Tai,  an  association  of  youths  from  15  to  17  years  old 
who  had  joined  together  for  the  purpose  of  defence, 
deserves  special  mention.  They  fought  with  great 
courage  ;  19  of  them,  when  the  town  perished  in 
flames  ended  their  lives  by  Harakiri.  A  few  women, 
armed  with  spears,  took  part  in  the  battle.  In  the 
end  the  imperial  army  was  victorious.  Matsudaira, 
wishing  to  save  the  lives  of  the  3000  besieged,  forbade 
suicide,  and  surrendered  with  them  to  the  conquerors 
who  exercised  mercy.  The  Daimios,  his  allies,  who 
were  scattered  through  the  land,  gradually 

The    war    was    also    carried    on    at    sea.       The 


Sh5gunate  had  acquired  a  number  of  men-of-war 
built  in  Holland,  8  of  which  were  in  the  hands  of 
Enomoto  Takeaki,  a  faithful  adherent  of  the 
Shogunate.  These  ships  succumbed  to  the  imperial 
fleet  in  the  battles  at  the  port  Miyako  and  at  the 
island  of  Ezo.  There  the  fortress  Goriokaku  made  a 
long  resistance  and  only  surrendered  in  July,  1869. 
That  event  ended  the  civil  war,  and  ensured  the 
imperial  supremacy  throughout  the  land. 

Meanwhile  the  government  had  come  to  a  firm 
decision  in  regard  to  the  question  of  foreigners.  Now 
that  the  whole  responsibility  of  government  lay  with 
the  imperial  party,  they  considered  it  incumbent  on 
them  to  be  on  friendly  terms  with  foreign  powers. 
Even  men  like  the  Prince  of  Nagato  who  had  a  few 
years  ago  violently  agitated  for  the  exclusion  of 
foreigners,  now  agreed  to  the  policy  of  friendly 
relations  with  them.  It  became  clear  that  the  hostile 
position  of  the  imperial  party  towards  foreigners  had 
been  essentially  due  to  their  opposition  to  the 
Shogunate.  The  prejudices,  too,  which  had  actually 
prevailed  with  them,  disappeared  in  closer  intercourse 
with  the  Europeans  who  at  this  time  came  in  large 
numbers  to  the  country.  The  imperial  court  was  now 
not  only  convinced  that  the  entire  opening  up  of  the 
country  was  an  absolute  necessity,  and  that  it  would 
bring  misfortune  on  the  whole  empire  to  resist  the 
superior  force  of  foreign  nations,  but  also  hoped  to 
derive  advantage  from  the  adoption  of  European 
forms  of  civilization. 

The  Emperor  on  February  7th,  1868,  the  first  Meiji 


year,  sent  an  embassy  to  the  representatives  of  the 
foreign  powers  at  Hiogo  (Kobe)  to  inform  them  that 
the  ShSgunate  government  no  longer  existed  and 
that  the  Emperor  alone  held  authority  :  the  imperial 
government  had  instituted  a  special  office  for  foreign 
affairs  and  desired  henceforth  to  maintain  friendly 
relations  with  foreign  powers.  It  did  not  rely  merely 
on  these  promises  ;  the  government  proved  by  deeds 
how  much  it  was  in  earnest.  When  the  Ronin  (errant 
knights  belonging  to  no  lord)  or  the  regular  troops 
made  attacks  on  Europeans,severe  measures  were  taken 
against  the  evil-doers,  and  the  government  did  not 
hesitate  to  risk  the  displeasure  of  their  own  vassals. 
Twenty  knights  of  the  Prince  of  Tosa  who  had  killed  a 
French  officer  with  eleven  men  were  condemned  to 
carry  out  harakiri  in  a  Buddhist  temple  at  Sakai  in  the 
presence  of  the  French  ambassador  ;  the  last  9  of  them, 
at  the  request  of  the  ambassador  who  was  unable  to 
endure  the  terrible  spectacle  any  longer,  were  let  off 
with  banishment. 

A  few  days  after  the  transmission  of  the  imperial 

declaration  to  the  representatives  of  the  foreign  powers 

at   Hi5go,  the  Emperor  Mutsuhito  solemnly  read  a 

proclamation  to  the  highest  Kuge  and  Daimios  in  the 

temple  belonging  to  the  imperial  palace  at  Ki5to,  and 

ratified  it  with  his  oath.     The  proclamation  contained 

the  guiding  lines  of  the  future  imperial  policy. 

I.  Assemblies  shall  be  called  into  being  in  which  all 

classes  of  the  people  shall  be  represented.     All 

affairs  of  state  shall  be  therein  discussed  and  public 

opinion  will  thus  find  expression. 


2.  In  future  all  distinction  between  the  upper  and 

lower  classes  of  the  people  shall  as  far  as  possible 
be  removed  for  the  purpose  of  securing  the  order 
and  peace  of  the  Empire. 

3.  Every  individual,  the  highest  officer  of  the  state 

as  well  as  the  most  insignificant  man  of  the  people, 
shall  strive  to  do  his  work  well  and  not  neglect  his 
special  calling. 

4.  Old-fashioned   and  useless   manners  and   customs 

shall  be  banned,  and  efforts  made  to  guide  the 
people  in  right  directions. 

5.  Knowledge   from  all  parts  of  the  world  shall  be 

made  use  of  for  rendering  the  state  strong  and 

On  November  6th,  1868,  the  Emperor  followed  the 
old  custom  of  naming  the  new  era.  He  called  it 
Meiji,  i.e.  u  brilliant  or  shining  reign."  He  decided 
that  for  the  future  such  a  designation  should  hold 
good  for  the  whole  reign  of  an  Emperor. 

At  the  end  of  1868,  the  official  machinery  that  had 
been  set  up  on  January  3rd  was  again  abolished 
and  its  place  taken  by  provisional  offices.  In  July, 
1869,  an  organization  of  the  imperial  central  govern- 
ment was  set  up  on  the  model  of  the  administrative 
reforms  of  the  first  Taiho  year.  A  Jingikan  and  a 
Dajokan  were  again  appointed,  of  which  the  last 
comprised  the  Dajodajin  or  Chancellor-in-chief,  the 
Sadaijin  or  Chancellor  of  the  left  and  the  Udaijin  or 
Chancellor  of  the  right.  As  we  said  above,  single 
ministerial  departments  were  under  the  Dajokan  which 


resembled  the  modern  European  ministries.  Corre- 
sponding to  that  model,  six  ministers  were  appointed 
under  the  Dajokan  :  a  minister  of  the  imperial  family, 
a  minister  of  finance,  a  minister  of  foreign  affairs,  a 
war  minister  (from  1872  minister  of  war  and  the 
marine),  a  minister  of  justice,  and  a  minister  of  home 
affairs.  The  Jingikan  was  abolished  and  replaced  by 
a  minister  for  religion  under  the  Dajokan. 

These  offices  were  bestowed  on  the  most  meritorious 
knights  of  the  imperial  party  ;  only  one  of  the  princes, 
the  prince  of  Satsuma,  received  an  office,  and  he  was 
appointed  Chancellor  of  the  left. 

The  Emperor  fixed  his  residence  at  Yedo,  Novem- 
ber 26th,  1868,  and  from  that  date  it  bore  the  name 
TSkio,  i.e.  the  eastern  capital. 

The  Shogunate  was  at  length  at  an  end  and  the 
imperial  power  restored.  But  even  so,  the  restoration 
was  only  partial.  It  did  not  yet  possess  by  a  long 
way  such  a  position  as  the  Taika  reforms  had  given 
it,  or  at  least  attempted  to  give  it.  There  were  still 
277  Daimios  who  only  acknowledged  the  imperial 
supremacy,  and  possessed  all  the  power  and  authority 
that  a  German  confederate  prince  has  to-day,  and 
besides  had  undiminished  rights  of  maintaining  their 
own  Samurai  army. 

But,  through  the  great  enthusiasm  for  the  new 
imperial  government  these  conditions,  also,  came  to 
an  end.  A  number  of  ministers  requested  the  Daimi5s 
under  whom  they  had  hitherto  been  as  Samurai,  to 
give  up  their  independent  position  as  princes,  and  to 
place  their  lands  in   the  Emperor's  hands.     Among 


them  were  the  Daimios  of  Nagato,  Satsuma,  Tosa, 
and  Hizen,  and  they  prepared  a  document  to  be 
signed  and  presented  to  the  Emperor  in  which  it  was 
stated  : — 

"  Formerly  the  imperial  family  alone  held  the 
reins  of  government,  and  so  should  they  govern  in 
the  future.  The  whole  Empire  must  be  governed  by 
our  Emperor,  since  the  land  belonged  to  him  from 
the  beginning,  and  all  the  people  are  his  subjects. 
Our  vassals  cannot  live  a  single  day  without  the  Em- 
peror. In  the  middle  ages  the  Kamakura  Shogunate 
violently  bereft  the  Emperor  of  his  power.  The 
Tokugawa  Shogunate  and  ourselves  did  not  realise 
the  wrong  we  were  doing.  But  now  we  repent,  and 
are  prepared  to  give  our  lands  back  to  the  Emperor. 
Only  if  our  Empire  is  united  under  one  ruler  will  it  be 
able  to  compete  with  the  European  states."  Gradu- 
ally the  signatories  to  this  document  were  able  to 
persuade  many  other  Daimios  to  give  up  their  inde- 
pendence and  their  lands. 

The  imperial  decree  that  put  an  end  to  the  feudal 
system  followed  on  June  17th,  1869.  The  decree 
abolished  the  princely  power  of  the  Daimios  ;  all 
lands  became  the  property  of  the  Emperor,  and  all 
the  Japanese,  his  subjects.  The  independent  powers 
which  the  feudal  system  had  created  came  to  an  end, 
and  one  central  power  governed  the  whole  Empire  and 
all  its  inhabitants.  The  decision  meant  an  absolute 
change  in  the  political, social,  economic,and  intellectual 
life  of  the  nation,  the  importance  of  which  was  incom- 
parably greater  than  the  speedy  introduction  of  the 


technical  achievements  of  European  nations,  a  striking 
circumstance  that  chiefly  attracts  attention,  but  it 
was  really  a  result  of  the  sweeping  political  reforms. 
The  former  feudal  subjection  was  replaced  by  civil 
liberty,  intellectual  enlightenment,  and  a  wholly  new 
economic  life.  The  complete  destruction  of  the  petri- 
fied political  forms  of  the  old  feudal  system  was  an 
essential  factor  in  the  adoption  in  its  widest  extent  of 
European  civilization. 

But  the  ethical  advantages  of  feudal  times  were  not 
destroyed  by  the  abolition  of  the  political  forms  of 
the  feudal  system.  BushidS  still  continued  to  exist; 
the  chivalrous  ideas,  especially  the  lofty  sense  of 
honour  of  the  Japanese  acquaintance  with  which  we 
have  made  in  feudal  times,  played  an  essential  part 
in  the  wonderful  success  of  the  Japanese  nation  in  its 
thorough  and  speedy  adoption  of  the  advantages  of 
European  civilization.  The  sense  of  honour  that 
made  the  nation  unable  to  endure  being  looked  down 
on,  was  calculated  in  a  high  degree  to  determine  the 
Japanese  eagerly  to  adopt  the  new  methods.  But  it 
was  not  only  by  its  moral  qualities  that  the  Japanese 
nation  so  quickly  won  the  esteem  of  Europe :  even 
more  important  was  the  fact  that  it  was  sufficiently 
educated  both  intellectually  and  aesthetically  to  ap- 
preciate the  superiority  of  European  civilization.  We 
have  pointed  out  the  great  epochs  of  the  intellectual 
and  artistic  activity  of  the  Japanese  nation,  and  have 
mentioned  great  scholars  and  artists  who  before  the 
closer  ties  with  Europe  did  distinguished  work. 
There  were  a  large  number  of  institutions  for  higher 


education  ;  there  were  elementary  schools  in  all  the 
larger  communities.  The  difficult  art  of  writing  was 
practised  by  the  greater  part  of  the  people.  That 
Japan  did  not  earlier  enter  into  relations  with  Europe 
had  its  cause  in  its  historical  development,  in  its  domes- 
tic politics.  An  absolute  change  in  those  politics  was 
required,  and  the  decree  of  June  17,  1869,  brought  it 
into  being. 

With  the  revolution  that  removed  all  the  DaimiSs 
and  Samurai  from  their  former  position  was  bound 
up  the  question  of  what  was  to  be  done  with  them  in 
the  future.  The  decree  of  June  17,  1869,  appointed 
the  Daimios  as  prefects  and  territorial  governors  over 
the  lands  they  had  formerly  possessed.  Compensa- 
tion in  money  was  given  to  the  Samurai.  But  in 
1 87 1  the  imperial  government  dismissed  all  the 
Daimios  from  their  offices,  and  compensated  them 
with  money  paid  in  government  bonds.  The  amount 
differed  in  accordance  with  the  importance  of  each 
prince.  The  whole  sum  paid  in  compensation  to  the 
Samurai  and  Daimios  was  about  ;£  17,390,000.  The 
government  in  addition  undertook  to  pay  all  the 
princes'  debts,  a  sum  of  not    less   than    £1,743,229. 

Their  titles  were  fixed  on  this  occasion.  All  the 
Daimi5s  and  former  imperial  court  officials  received 
the  appellation  of  Kazoku,  i.e.  Flower  or  noble  families. 
They  resided  almost  without  exception  at  Tokio. 
The  families  fell  into  five  classes  according  to  their 
former  importance  :  1.  K5  =  prince,  2.  Ko  (written  in 
Japanese  differently  from  the  first  Kd)  =  marquis,  3. 
Haku  -  Earl,  4.  Shi  -  viscount,  5.  Dan  -  Baron.    There 


were  at  that  time  486  Kazoku  families  and  406,209 
Samurai  families. 

The  country  was  in  1871  divided  into  three  Ful 
with  the  towns  Tokio,  Kioto  and  Osaka.  The  Fu 
were  again  divided  into  seventy-two  Ken.a  The 
island  of  Ezo  or  HokkaidS  formed  an  exception,  and 
was  regarded  as  a  colony,  and  also  the  island  of 
Riukiu  which  was  governed  by  a  king  who  paid 
homage  to  the  imperial  supremacy.  But  they  were 
-   on  joined  to  a  government  district.8 

At  this  period  one  reform  followed  another  with 
astonishing  rapidity.  In  1870  the  judicial  system 
underwent  reform  :  it  was  separated  from  the  poli- 
tical administration.  A  new  penal  code  was  begun 
on  the  European  model  and  was  finished  in  1880,  and 
all  legal  affairs  were  administered  in  European 

In  1 87 1,  also,  a  new  system  of  coinage  was  intro- 
duced :  the  En  (about  two  shillings)  was  the  normal 
coin.  A  gold  standard  was  only  introduced  after  the 
victorious  war  with  China.  Europeans  now  founded 
banks  and  insurance  societies  in  Japan. 

The  telegraph  had  been  introduced  in  1870;  the 
next  year  the  subterranean  cable  between  Nagasaki 

1  Chief  divisions. 

"Government  districts  or  departments. 

•At  the  present  time  the  country  is  divided  into  three  Fu 
and  forty-three  Ken.  Hokkaido,  Formosa  and  Saghalien  have 
a  special  government,  as  has  the  recently  acquired  Korea  and 
the  part  of  Manchuria  ruled  by  Japan. 


and  Shanghai  was  laid.  The  railway  between  TokiS 
and  Yokohama  was  opened  in  1872,  and  other  lines 
opening  up  the  whole  country  soon  followed.  A 
postal  system  on  the  European  model  was  instituted 
in  1 87 1.  In  a  few  years  there  was  a  widely  spread 
network  of  telegraphs.  Compulsory  education  was 
made  the  law  in  1872,  and  in  1873  the  Gregorian 
calendar  and  the  observance  of  Sunday  were  intro- 

Immediately  after  the  breaking  up  of  the  feudal 
system,  by  the  decree  of  June  17th,  1871,  the  former 
army  of  knights  was  disbanded,  and  replaced  by  an 
imperial  army  which  in  1873  was  to  be  joined  by 
citizens  and  peasants.  The  formation,  equipment 
and  training  of  the  imperial  army  followed  the 
European  model.  French  instructors  were  employed 
until  1877  and  they  were  replaced  later  by  German. 
Universal  conscription  was  introduced  in  1873.  At 
that  time  the  imperial  army  consisted  of  6  divisions,1 
and  each  division  had  a  peace  footing  of  7,000  men. 
An  imperial  navy  was  also  founded  at  this  time. 

These  reforms  which  were  carried  out  by  an 
absolute  government  were  followed  by  the  reform  of 
the  absolute  government  itself,  and  may  be  compared 
with  the  period  of  liberal-minded  absolutism  in 
European  states  when  the  people  grew  ripe  for 
political  independence  and  constitutional  government. 

But  before  this  change  occurred  there  was  a  fierce 
and  widespread  struggle  to  defend  the  reforms  already 
made  from  the  reaction  that  set  in  against  them. 

1  It  now  consists  of  18  divisions. 



It  can  be  easily  understood  that  the  activity  of  the 
reforming  government,  and  the  joyful  acquiescence  of 
the  majority  of  the  people,  excited  serious  discontent 
in  the  class  that  had  formerly  played  the  chief  part, 
and  was  now  deprived  of  all  its  privileges.  The 
Samurai  found  that  in  the  general  economic  and 
industrial  competition  and  progress  they  were  out- 
stripped by  the  citizens  whom  they  had  hitherto 
regarded  with  contempt.  They  were  even  deprived 
of  what  had  formerly  distinguished  them  out- 
wardly from  citizens  and  peasants,  the  right  to  wear 
two  swords,  by  an  edict  of  1871.  The  money 
compensation  they  received  was  very  small ;  in  any 
case  it  bore  no  relation  to  their  former  way  of  living, 
and  was  soon  spent.  The  only  work  they  understood 
was  that  of  fighting,  and  they  had  neither  the 
capacity  nor  the  desire  for  industrial  or  agricultural 
employments.  Those,  and  they  were  the  greater 
part,  who  received  no  office  saw  themselves  face  to 
face  with  poverty.     The  large  party  of  opposition  to 


the  new  system  of  government  that  was  thus  formed 
among  the  Samurai  included  many  who,  a  short  time 
before,  had  supported  the  imperial  government 
against  the  Shogunate.  They  had  not  foreseen  that 
the  restoration  of  the  imperial  power  would  result  in 
the  complete  abolition  of  the  feudal  system,  and  the 
ruin  of  their  class.  As  it  was  clear  to  most  of  them 
that  there  was  very  little  chance  of  the  restoration  of 
feudal  conditions,  they  placed  their  hopes  on  a 
foreign  war  by  means  of  which  they  thought  to  win 
fame  and  esteem.  And  so  the  Samurai  agitated  for 
war  with  Korea. 

They  found  support  for  their  effort  in  that  direction 
in  General  Saigo  Takamori,  a  former  Samurai  of  the 
Daimioof  Satsuma.  He  had  won  great  distinction  in 
the  restoration  of  the  imperial  power,  and  held  an 
important  place  at  the  imperial  court.  Many 
councillors  of  state  of  the  various  government  depart- 
ments supported  their  efforts,  and  in  1873  had  very 
nearly  succeeded  in  forcing  their  will,  when  Iwakura 
Tomomi,  the  Chancellor  of  the  right,  and  the 
councillors  of  state,  Okubo  Toshimichi  and  Kido 
Takayoshi  returned  from  a  three  years'  tour  in  Europe, 
and  declared  that  for  the  present,  the  government 
must  under  no  circumstances  enter  into  a  foreign 
war ;  peace  must  be  preserved  in  the  land,  in  order 
to  carry  on  the  reforms  already  made  and  to  introduce 
others.  The  Emperor  shared  the  views  of  the 
reform  and  peace  party.  That  fact  so  embittered  the 
aristocratic  leaders  of  the  war  party,  Saigo  Takamori, 
and  the  councillors  Eto  Shimpei  and  Itagaki  Taisuke, 


that  they  resigned  the  imperial  service.  They  now 
put  themselves  at  the  head  of  the  opposition  against 
the  reforming  government. 

In  1874  a  rebellion  led  by  Et5  Shimpei  broke 
out  in  the  Saga  district  and  it  took  the  government 
a  month  to  quell  it.  It  saw  that  danger  to  the 
country  might  ensue  from  this  discontent,  and  that 
something  must  be  done  to  divert  the  opposition's 
desire  of  fighting  to  other  quarters.  It  therefore 
determined  on  an  expedition  to  Formosa  to  subdue 
the  savage  tribes  living  in  the  south  of  the  island.  A 
legitimate  political  cause  was  forthcoming.  A  few 
years  back  Japanese  merchants  had  been  murdered 
there.  Representations  made  at  the  time  by  Japan 
to  the  Chinese  government  to  which  Formosa  was 
subordinate,  were  without  result.  Japan  was  there- 
fore within  its  rights,  if  it  now  sought  satisfaction  on 
its  own  part. 

In  May,  1874,  General  Saig5  Tsugumichi  set  out 
from  Nagasaki  to  Formosa  with  36,000  men,  mostly 
Samurai,  and  in  a  few  months  succeeded  in  bringing 
the  savage  tribes  of  the  island  into  subjection.  But 
Japan  was  unable  to  annex  a  part  of  the  island,  as 
the  Chinese  government  entered  a  protest  against 
Japan's  proceedings.  Diplomatic  negotiations  en- 
sued, and  with  the  help  of  English  arbitration  it  was 
decided  that  China  should  pay  Japan  an  indemnity 
of  £50,000 

The  enterprise,  however,  did  not  remove  the  dis- 
content prevailing  among  the  knights. 

In    1876   rebellions   again    broke   out.       A   large 



number  of  Samurai  collected  together  in  the  town  of 
Kumamoto  where  there  had  been  peculiar  resistance 
to  the  introduction  of  European  customs.  In  the 
night  of  October  24th-25th  they  attacked  Major- 
General  Taneda  and  numerous  other  officers  of  the 
garrison.  Taneda  and  many  of  his  comrades  died. 
The  prefect  of  the  district  was  seriously  wounded. 
The  soldiers  in  the  barracks  were  forced  to  surrender 
to  the  rebels.  Revolts  also  occurred  in  Akitsuki  and 

The  next  year,  1877,  the  rebellion  that  the  former 
General  Saigo  Takamori  had  so  long  been  preparing 
took  place.  He  had  belonged  to  the  imperial  party, 
and  had  supported  the  friendly  policy  of  the  govern- 
ment towards  foreigners.  But  he  possessed  too 
much  of  the  old  spirit  of  chivalry,  he  was  too  much 
a  child  of  feudal  times,  of  too  romantic  a  nature,  not 
to  find  the  policy  of  the  imperial  civil  government 
too  levelling.  From  patriotic  motives  he  had  eagerly 
supported  the  ^abolition  of  fiefs  and  the  decree  of 
June  17th,  1809,  but  he  desired  to  preserve  for  the 
fatherland  the  chivalrous  spirit  of  feudal  times.  He 
and  many  educated  officers  who  gathered  round  him, 
considered  it  unworthy  of  a  military  state  to  be 
governed  as  now,  solely  by  civil  officials,  and  could 
not  endure  that  so  many  brave  Samurai  should  be 
reduced  to  a  condition  of  absolute  insignificance. 
Their  aim  was  to  replace  this,  in  their  opinion, 
weakly  official  system  of  government  which  they 
despised,  by  a  strong,  military  rule,  ready  and  able 
to  pursue  a  glorious  foreign  policy,  and  to  have  no 


fear  of  entering  on  a  war.  They  hoped  that  under 
such  a  government  the  Samurai  would  regain  their 

The  rebellion  had  been  long  preparing.  With 
men  of  similar  views  like  Major-General  Kirino 
Toshiaki  and  Shinowara  Kunimoto,  Takamori.  had 
founded  in  his  native  Kagoshima  the  so-called 
private  school.  There  the  classical  literature  of 
China  was  studied  and  daily  military  exercises 
practised.  The  number  of  pupils  gradually  increased 
to  3,000. 

In  February,  1877,  the  discontent  broke  out  into 
open  deeds  of  violence  against  the  government 
officials.  This  was  against  the  will  of  Takamori 
who  would  have  preferred  to  wait  until  his  strength 
was  more  assured.  But  there  was  now  no  going 
back.  With  a  force  of  12,000  men  he  marched 
against  the  town  of  Kumamoto,  where  there  was  a 
strong  imperial  garrison  that  must  be  overcome 
before  he  could  proceed  to  march  against  Tokio. 
The  imperial  Major-General  Tani  Motoki,  the  com- 
mander-in-chief of  the  garrison,  made  a  brave 
resistance,  and  Saig5  Takamori  was  forced  to  enter 
on  a  wearisome  siege.  He  received  support  in 
money  from  the  prefect  of  the  district  of  Kagoshima, 
so  that  he  was  able  to  increase  his  army  to  20,000 
men.  But  soon  Prince  Arisugawa-no-miya  marched 
against  him  with  the  whole  imperial  army. 

A  battle  took  place  near  Kumamoto  on  the  hill 
of  Tabaruzaka  in  which  Saigo  was  defeated,  and 
some  of  the   best    leaders   of  the   rebel  army  like 


Shinowara,  fell.  The  siege  of  Kumamoto  was  raised 
soon  after  this  defeat.  When  the  rebels  were 
defeated  after  severe  fighting  at  several  fortresses, 
Takamori  and  his  faithful  adherents  returned  to 
Kago*hima  where  they  intrenched  themselves  on 
the  hill  of  Schiroyama,  situated  near  the  town  of 
Kagoshima.  There  on  the  morning  of  September 
24th  they  were  defeated  by  the  imperial  army  after 
a  final  desperate  struggle.  SaigS  Kirino,  and  other 
leaders  committed  suicide.  The  victory  of  the 
imperial  troops  put  an  end  to  the  danger  of  rebellion 
by  those  opposed  to  the  new  system  of  government. 

The  tragic  end  of  Takamori  roused  deep  sympathy 
throughout  the  country  both  in  friend  and  foe.  A 
great  personality  died  with  him.  He  understood  in 
a  degree  rarely  seen,  how  to  live  and  die  for  his  great 
patriotic  ideas,  impossible  to  realize  though  they 
were.  Not  less  than  40,000  men  had  taken  up  arms 
for  him  in  the  last  war.  His  defeat  cost  the 
government  a  great  expenditure  of  strength.  They 
had  placed  in  the  field  against  him  58,000  men  of 
whom  6,200  were  killed  and  9,500  wounded. 



We  have  already  stated  that  a  period  of  enlighten- 
ment followed  the  abolition  of  the  feudal  system  in 
Japan,  for  which  the  absolute  government  was 
systematically  responsible.  By  its  means,  European 
intellectual  life  took  firm  root  in  Japan.  Simul- 
taneously with  the  introduction  of  compulsory  edu- 
cation and  the  extension  of  the  system  of  elementary 
schools,  numerous  high  schools  were  established  in 
which  European  languages,  especially  English,  were 
taught.  English  books  were  read,  and  Japanese 
students  went  every  year  to  Europe  and  returned  to 
their  homes  full  of  European  ideas.  And  thus  con- 
stitutional ideas  and  methods  found  favour,  but  more 
among  educated  persons  like  the  higher  officials  than 
among  the  masses  of  the  people. 

The  government  made  reforms  before  they  were 
especially  demanded  or  even  understood  by  the 
people.  In  1875  they  instituted  a  Senate  with 
regular  sessions,  composed  of  distinguished  and  cap- 
able men,  and  also  an  annual  meeting  of  directors 
of  districts.     Both  assemblies   were  of  an  advisory 


character.  In  1879  district  councils  were  instituted 
in  each  district,  and  they  were  responsible  for  an 
essential  part  of  the  financial  administration  and  the 
imposition  of  taxes  in  their  districts. 

But  gradually  the  new  political  ideas  penetrated 
to  the  people  themselves,  and  the  demand  for  con- 
stitutional government  became  more  insistent. 
Numerous  petitions  were  presented  to  the  senate 
concerning  the  revision  of  the  commercial  treaties, 
and  the  removal  of  the  special  tribunals  of  the  foreign 
consulates.  Different  political  parties  were  formed  : 
1.  The  Jiyuto,  the  liberal  party  which  demanded 
greater  personal  freedom.  Its  founder  was  the  former 
councillor,  Itugaki  Taisuke,  who  had  resigned  with 
Saig5  Takamori.  2.  The  Kaishinto,  the  progressive 
party,  the  less  radical  party  which  demanded  national 
progress  rather  than  the  liberty  of  the  individual. 
Its  founder  was  the  councillor,  Okuma  Shigenobu, 
who  had  also  resigned,  and  later  was  to  come 
forward  as  minister.  3.  The  Rikkenteiseito,  the  con- 
stitutional imperial  government  party  which  held 
conservative  views  ;  it  wanted  a  constitution  but  felt 
that  the  time  for  constitutional  government  had  not 
yet  arrived.  That  party  had  only  existed  for  a  short 
time.  At  the  same  time  as  this  formation  of  parties, 
the  press  made  great  progress  and  the  demands  of 
public  opinion  were  more  definitely  expressed. 

These  developments  resulted  in  the  following 
imperial  decree  of  October,  1881  : 

t(  My  family  has  been  in  uninterrupted  possession 
of  the   government   of  this   country  for  over  2,500 


years.  I  have  completely  restored  the  imperial  power 
which  suffered  diminution  in  the  middle  ages,  and 
have  re-united  the  whole  Empire.  It  is  my  wish  to 
give  my  people  a  system  of  constitutional  govern- 
ment which  shall  be  accepted  and  protected  by  my 
successors.  The  Senate  and  the  assembly  of 
directors  of  districts  instituted  in  1875  were  a  pre- 
paration for  this.  But  the  time  is  not  yet  ripe  for  the 
introduction  of  such  a  system.  European  civilization 
must  first  be  more  widely  spread  and  more  firmly 
rooted.  But  I  promise  that  in  the  23rd  Meiji  year, 
1890,  a  parliament  shall  be  opened.  Let  the  officials 
and  the  people  prepare  for  it." 

In  1882  the  Emperor  sent  the  councillor,  I  to 
Hirobumi,  to  Europe  to  study  the  different  European 
constitutions.  He  returned  to  Japan  in  1884,  an<3  a 
beginning  was  made  to  work  out  great  government 

In  1885  a  thorough  change  was  made  in  the  official 
apparatus  of  the  imperial  central  government.  The 
Dajokan,  that  had  been  restored  in  1869  was 
abolished,  and  the  central  government  was  modelled 
on  the  European  ministries.  A  President  (Naikaku- 
Sori-Daijin)  was  at  the  head  of  the  following 
departments:  1.  Home  Office  (Naimu-sho).  2.  Foreign 
Office  (Gaimu-sho).  3.  The  Treasury  (Okura-sho). 
4.  War  Office  (Rikugun-sho).  5.  The  Admiralty 
(Kaigun-sho).  6.  Department  of  Justice  (Shiho-sho). 
7.  Board  of  Education  (Mombu-sho).  8.  Board  of 
Agriculture  and  Trade  (Noshomu-sho).  9.  Board  of 
Communications    and    Public    Works   (Teishin-shS). 


The  Senate  instituted  in  1875  was  abolished,  and  the 
Emperor  formed  a  privy  council  of  men  who  had 
won  distinction  in  the  service  of  the  State.  The 
regular  sittings  of  the  district  assembly  also  ceased, 
and  it  lay  in  future  with  the  minister  for  Home 
Affairs  to  summon  it  for  the  purpose  of  advice  in 
specially  important  matters. 

In  1888  the  administration  of  the  communes  under- 
went reform. 

The  proclamation  of  the  new  constitution  which  was 
awaited  by  the  people  with  great  anxiety  was  made 
on  February  nth,  1889. 

It  instituted  two  chambers,  the  House  of  Lords 
and  the  House  of  Representatives  of  the  people. 
The  two  chambers  had  the  rights  of  regular  sessions 
of  imposing  taxes,  of  legislation,  of  petition  and  of 
interpellation.  The  Emperor  held  the  right  of 
summoning,  proroguing  or  dissolving  both  chambers, 
of  setting  aside  their  decisions  or  assisting  them  with 
the  power  of  the  law.  This  constitution  still  holds 

The  House  of  Lords-,  so  ran  the  decree,  was  to 
consist  of:  1.  Princes  of  the  imperial  family  over 
20  years  of  age.  2.  All  princes  and  marquises  over 
25  years  of  age.  3.  One  fifth  of  the  three  other  classes 
of  nobles  elected  by  themselves.  The  right  of  voting 
belonged  only  to  those  who  had  completed  their  25th 
year.  4.  45  citizen  delegates.  The  15  richest  men 
of  each  district  elected  a  delegate,  the  age  of  30 
being  the  lowest  both  for  elected  and  electors.  The 
delegate  was  elected  to  serve  for  seven  years.     5.  Of 


a  certain  number  of  learned  and  capable  men  chosen 
by  the  Emperor  according  to  his  pleasure.  The 
number  of  the  members  of  the  House  of  Lords  was 
not  to  exceed  300. 

The  House  pf  Representatives  of  the  people,  the 
decree  stated,  was  to  be  directly  elected.  The 
electoral  franchise  was  to  be  equal  but  not  universal. 
Only  those  who  paid  15  l  En  in  direct  taxes  and 
were  over  25  years  of  age  could  vote.  The  members 
who  numbered  300 a  were  elected  for  4  years. 

Two  important  reforms  were  introduced  before 
the  beginning  of  the  elections.  A  new  legal  con- 
stitution was  decreed,  February  18th,  1890,  and  a 
new  civil  code  was  published  on  February  21st. 

The  elections  for  the  House  of  Representatives  were 
held  July,  ist-3rd,  1890.  The  result  was  favourable 
to  the  government.  The  Emperor  opened  both 
Chambers  on  November  29th,  and  thus  in  1890  a 
new  era  again  began  for  Japan. 

1  Lowered  later  to  10  En. 
•Raised  to  370  in  1890. 



We  have  seen  how  at  the  end  of  the  Tokugawa 
Sh5gunate  the  Russians  had  penetrated  as  far  as 
the  northern  frontier  of  Japan,  and  in  spite  of  the 
opposition  of  the  Shogunate  government  had  taken 
possession  of  a  part  of  the  islands  of  Saghalien  and 
Kurile.  Shortly  before  its  fall  the  Shogunate 
asserted  its  readiness  to  recognize  the  50th  parallel 
of  north  latitude  as  its  boundary.  But  the  Russian 
government  did  not  agree.  In  1875,  however,  the 
two  powers  came  to  an  agreement  by  which  Russia 
received  the  whole  of  Saghalien,  and  Japan  the 
Kurile  islands. 

After  the  restoration  of  the  imperial  power  in 
Japan,  there  was,  as  we  have  also  seen,  a  strong 
agitation  for  war  with  Korea.  The  government  was 
not  in  favour  of  it,  considering  the  country  not  yet 
sufficiently  prepared  to  risk  the  chances  of  so 
hazardous  a  foreign  enterprise.  But  the  Korean 
question  was  soon  to  become  again  acute.  For  the 
government  of  Korea  which  refused  to  open  their 
ports  to  foreigners,  and  fired  at  French  and  American 


men  of  war,  were  too  proud  to  receive  a  Japanese 
embassy,  and  made  great  encroachments  on  Japan. 
In  1895  a  Japanese  man  of  war  sailed  past  the 
Korean  island  of  Koka,  and  was  fired  at  from  the 
battery  of  the  island.  An  attack  followed  and  the 
Japanese  took  the  island.  The  success  of  the 
Japanese  arms  worked  wonders.  The  Korean 
government  contented  themselves  with  entering  into 
diplomatic  relations  with  Japan,  and  concluding  a 
commercial  treaty  by  which  the  port  of  Fusan,  and 
later  those  of  Tschemulpo  and  Gensan,  were  open  to 
Japan.  The  United  States  and  the  European 
governments  made  similar  treaties  with  Korea. 

Hitherto  the  government  of  Korea  had  been 
carried  on  by  Tai-Won-Kun,  a  man  hostile  to  reform, 
for  his  son,  King  Ri-Ki,  who  was  a  minor.  When  he 
came  of  age  and  took  over  the  reins  of  government 
in  agreement  with  his  wife,  a  member  of  the  powerful 
aristocratic  family,  Min,  he  directed  his  efforts  to 
obtain  absolute  independence,  and  to  remove 
Tai-Won-Kun's  influence  from  all  departments  of 
the  government.  The  contrast  was  the  more 
acute  since  he  sought  to  introduce  reforms  on 
the  Japanese  model.  When  for  that  purpose  he 
invited  some  Japanese  officers  to  visit  the  country, 
Tai-Won-Kun  was  so  exasperated  that  he  collected 
an  army  of  discontented  soldiers,  stormed  the  royal 
palace,  and  massacred  the  Japanese  officers.  The 
house  of  the  Japanese  embassy  was  burnt  down,  and 
the  Japanese  envoys  only  escaped  with  their  lives, 
and  fled  to  Nagasaki  in  an  English  ship. 


But  a  change  in  the  conduct  of  affairs  at  court 
took  place  when  a  Japanese  man  of  war  appeared  at 
Tschemulpo  and  demanded  satisfaction  for  the 
Japanese  embassy.  Fear  of  war  with  Japan  shook 
Tai-Won-Kun's  determination,  he  left  the  palace  and 
fled  to  Peking.  The  young  king  apologized  to  Japan 
and  permitted  her  to  place  two  companies  of  soldiers 
at  Seoul.  And  the  Korean  government  paid  an 
indemnity  of  ^"50,000. 

China  now  interfered,  and  also  placed  two 
companies  of  soldiers  at  Seoul,  as  Japan  could  not 
be  permitted  to  strengthen  her  position  in  Korea. 
The  rivalry  between  the  Japanese  and  Chinese 
troops  continually  increased,  and  two  parties  corres- 
ponding to  the  rival  nations  were  formed  at  the 
Korean  court:  the  Jidaito1  which  was  re-actionary  and 
leaned  to  China,  and  the  Dokuritsut52  which 
held  progressive  views  and  leaned  to  Japan.  In 
December,  1884,  it  came  to  open  hostility.  The 
DokuritsutS  attacked  members  of  the  Min  family 
who  had  been  disloyal  to  their  friendship  with  Japan, 
and  had  joined  with  the  Jidaita  party.  Thereupon 
hostilities  immediately  broke  out  between  the 
Japanese  and  Chinese  garrisons  which  ended  badly 
for  the  Japanese.  The  Japanese  embassy  was  burnt 
down  (1884). 

But  Japan  made  a  protest,  and  the  minister  for 
Foreign    Affairs   went   in   person   to    Korea.       The 

1  Ji= obedient,  dai*=  great  power  i.e.  China,  to  *=  party. 
%i.e.  independence. 


Korean  government  made  amends,  promised  to 
rebuild  the  Japanese  embassy  and  to  pay  an 

In  order  also  to  come  to  a  settlement  with  China, 
the  Japanese  ambassador  It5  Hirobumi  went  to 
Tientsin  where  he  entered  into  negociations  with  the 
Chinese  Ambassador  Li-Hung-Tschang.  The  Treaty 
of  Tientsin  was  concluded  between  the  two  powers, 
18th  April,  1885.  It  enacted  :  1.  Recognition  of  the 
independence  of  Korea.  2.  Withdrawal  of  the 
Chinese  and  Japanese  troops.  3.  Obligation  of  the 
two  powers  to  come  to  an  agreement  together 
concerning  all  future  action  in  Korea. 

But  the  hostility  between  China  and  Japan  in 
regard  to  Korea  was  not  ended  by  that  treaty,  and 
the  last  article  contained  the  germ  of  fresh  conflicts. 



The  Chinese  government  had  no  intention  of  taking 
the  Treaty  of  Tientsin  seriously.  They  considered 
that  their  supremacy  over  Korea  still  held  good,  and 
continued  to  interfere  considerably  in  the  domestic 
affairs  of  the  country. 

When  in  April,  1894,  the  T5kugat5l  rebelled,  and 
the  Korean  government  could  not  put  them  down, 
China  sent  troops  to  Korea.  That  proceeding  com- 
pelled Japan  to  do  the  same.  Four  thousand  men 
were  landed  at  Yen-Tschuan,  not  far  from  Seoul,  on 
June  1 2th.  The  Chinese  government  informed  Japan 
that  their  troops  were  not  required,  as  China  had 
already  restored  order.  The  Japanese  government 
referred  to  the  Treaty  of  Tientsin,  and  proposed  that 
with  the  assistance  of  China,  reforms  should  be 
carried  out  in  Korea  by  which  the  country  should  be 
freed  from  the  oppression  of  the  nobles  and  from  the 
extortions  of  corrupt  officials.  By  that  way  alone 
could  the  improvement  of  the  impoverished  nation 
be  assured. 

1  To = oriental,  Gaku  =  learning,  To  =  party. 


China  refused  the  proposition  without  closer  con- 
sideration, and  sent  more  troops  by  sea  to  Asan 
(Gazan)  in  order  to  shut  up  the  Japanese  army  in 
Seoul  and  destroy  it. 

Then  a  Japanese  squadron  of  8  ships  sailed  out  and 
cruised  about  on  the  high  seas  before  Asan  in  order 
to  capture  any  further  troops  that  China  might  send. 
On  July  25th,  it  came  up  with  two  Chinese  ships  by  the 
island  of  Pfhung-d5  (Hoto)  near  Asan.  The  Chinese 
fired  the  first  shot ;  a  fight  took  place  that  ended 
with  the  flight  of  the  Chinese  ships.  Soon  after  the 
Japanese  squadron  again  came  up  with  two  Chinese 
ships  that  had  a  large  number  of  troops  aboard.  One 
of  them  immediately  surrendered.  The  other  that 
sailed  under  the  British  flag  was  summoned  to  sur- 
render by  Togd,  the  commander  of  the  cruiser,  Naniwa, 
and  when  she  refused  was  fired  at  and  destroyed. 
The  English  officers  were  saved,  but  1200  Chinese 
troops  who  were  on  board  were  drowned. 

Meanwhile  the  Japanese  had  landed  more  troops 
at  Tschemulpo.  They  joined  with  the  Japanese 
regiment  at  Seoul,  and  attacked  the  Chinese,  who  had 
remained  at  Asan  waiting  in  vain  for  aid.  A  battle 
was  fought  on  July  27th,  at  the  little  town  of 
Seonghwan  (Sei-kan)  in  which  the  Chinese  were 

The  Korean  government  again  deserted  the  Chinese 
cause  for  the  side  of  the  more  powerful  Japanese. 

On  August  1st,  1894,  the  Japanese  government 
officially  declared  war  on  China,  and  were  enthusiastic- 
ally supported  by  the  two  Houses  and  the  people  in 


general.  Party  differences  retired  into  the  back- 
ground, and  the  House  of  Representatives  un- 
animously granted  the  necessary  funds. 

On  August  8th,  the  Japanese  marched  into  Seoul 
unopposed,  and  were  received  in  friendly  fashion  by 
the  Korean  Government  which  declared  its  readiness 
to  make  the  reforms  demanded  by  Japan. 

As  the  Japanese  fleet  made  it  impossible  for  the 
Chinese  to  effect  a  landing  at  Asan,  they  had  landed 
troops  in  the  north  of  Korea  at  the  mouth  of  the 
river  Taidong,  and  occupied  the  fortress  of  Phyong- 
yang  which  was  situated  in  its  neighbourhood. 
Thither  also  the  troops  retreated  after  their  defeat  at 
Song-hwan.  The  garrison  of  Phyong-yang  was 
increased  therefore  to  50,000  men.  The  Japanese 
sent  a  part  of  their  force  against  the  fortress,  under 
the  command  of  Lieutenant-General  Nozu,  who  took 
it  by  storm  on  September  15th. 

Two  days  later,  a  naval  battle  took  place  near  the 
island  of  Hai-yang  in  the  Korean  bay  of  the  Yellow 
Sea.  The  Japanese  fleet  consisted  of  12  ships,  and 
was  under  the  command  of  Ito  Yuko,  the  Chinese 
fleet  numbering  12  men  of  war  and  5  torpedo  boats. 
The  battle  ended  with  the  entire  defeat  of  the  Chinese 
who  lost  five  ships. 

The  chief  military  encampment  which  had  been 
hitherto  at  TSki5  was  moved  on  September  15th  to 
the  west,  to  Hiroshima,  so  as  to  be  nearer  the  seat  of 

Before  the  taking  of  the  fortress  of  Phyong-yang, 
Field-Marshal  Yamagata  Aritomo  with  the  fifth  and 


third  divisions,  had  crossed  the  lower  course  of  the 
Yalu,  the  river  that  formed  the  boundary  between 
Korea  and  Manchuria,  and  invaded  Manchuria. 
The  Chinese  had  a  fortress,  Kiu-lien-cheng,  (Kiu-ren- 
jo)  on  the  Manchurian  bank  of  the  Yalu,  and  a  force 
of  25,000  men.  When  on  October  26th,  the  Japanese 
began  the  attack,  the  whole  of  the  Chinese  garrison 
turned  tail  and  fled.  Sixty-six  cannon,  more  than 
3,000  guns  and  large  military  stores,  fell  into  the 
hands  of  the  Japanese. 

After  the  capture  of  that  fortress  the  second  Japanese 
army,  consisting  of  the  1st  and  2nd  divisions  under 
Field-Marshal  Oyama  Iwao  landed  on  the  east  coast 
of  the  Liantung  peninsula  at  the  mouth  of  the  river 
Hwa-Yen  (Ka-en-ko),  not  far  from  Port  Arthur  (Rio- 
jun-K6).  They  immediately  attacked  the  fortified  town 
of  Kintschou,  took  it  on  November  6th,  and  so  threw 
open  the  road  to  Port  Arthur.  On  November  21st, 
they  attacked  that  fortress  but  were  repulsed.  In 
the  night,  however,  the  Chinese  fled,  and  when  the 
Japanese  renewed  the  attack  next  day,  they  found 
no  resistance.  Thus  the  southern  peninsula  of  Liang- 
tung  fell  into  the  hands  of  the  2nd  Japanese  army 
which  now  divided  into  two  parts.  The  principal 
division,  under  Oyama,  embarked  for  the  Shantung 
peninsula,  the  other,  under  the  command  of  Lieuten- 
ant-General  Yamaji  marched  north  in  order  to  join 
the  1st  army  which  had  meanwhile  penetrated  farther 
into  Manchuria. 

The  next  proceeding  of  the  northern  army  (1st 
army)  was  to  attack  the  fortress  of  Kaiping  in  the 



north  of  the  Liantung  peninsula,  and  they  took  it  by 
storm  on  January  ioth,  1895. 

The  passage  of  the  larger  part  of  the  2nd  army  to  the 
Shantung  peninsula  was  accomplished  under  the  pro- 
tection of  the  whole  of  the  Japanese  fleet  of  men  of 
war.  The  troops  were  landed,  January  20th-25th. 
They  immediately  proceeded  to  attack  the  fortress  of 
Wei-hai-wei.  The  whole  of  the  Chinese  war  fleet, 
about  30  men  of  war,  was  lying  in  the  harbour. 
They  had  barricaded  themselves  there,  and  despite 
their  numerical  superiority,  made  no  attempt  to  pre- 
vent the  passage  of  the  Japanese  southern  army. 
During  the  attack  of  the  land  force  on  the  fortress, 
the  Japanese  fleet  blockaded  the  harbour.  The 
south-east  fort  fell  on  January  30th,  and  on  February 
2nd,  the  Japanese  were  masters  of  all  the  fortifications 
situated  on  the  mainland.  During  the  battle  they 
had  several  times  attacked  the  Chinese  fleet  with 
torpedo  boats,  in  consequence  of  which  they  suffered 
some  losses,  but  destroyed  four  of  the  enemy's  men 
of  war.  The  Japanese  fleet  and  land  force  now 
combined  in  common  attacks  on  the  enemy's  ships 
and  island  forts,  and  by  February  12th,  Admiral  Ting, 
Commander  of  the  Chinese  fleet,  was  compelled  to 
enter  into  negotiations.  The  deed  of  capitulation  was 
signed  on  February  14th.  Ting  killed  himself  before 
the  surrender.  The  other  ten  men  of  war,  and  a 
garrison  of  5,134  men  and  183  officers  fell  into  the 
hands  of  the  Japanese.  The  prisoners  had  to  surrender 
their  arms,  and  were  then  set  at  liberty. 

While   the   southern  army  had  had  so  brilliant  a 


success,  the  northern  army  had  also  been  victorious. 
General  Nozu  had  replaced  Yamagata  who  had  been 
forced  to  resign  through  illness.  On  March  4th,  Nozu 
had  taken  the  town  of  Niu-tschwang  after  severe 
fighting  in  the  streets,  and  then  crossed  the  Liau-ho 
(Rio-ka)  with  the  whole  of  the  northern  army.  The 
town  of  Tien-tschwang-tai  (Den-sho-dai)  was  soon 
taken,  and  then  there  were  no  troops  to  prevent  the 
further  invasion  of  the  Chinese  empire  by  the  Japanese. 
And  so  the  large  empire  of  China  was  compelled  to 
make  overtures  of  peace  to  little  Japan. 

Japan  had  won  the  admiration  of  the  whole  world 
by  its  deeds  of  arms.  The  new  era  had  produced 
fine  fruit.  It  was  evident  that  the  Japanese  nation 
understood  how  to  assimilate  the  technical  inventions 
and  the  military  drill  of  Europe  and  to  employ  it 
themselves.  But  they  did  not  owe  their  splendid 
success  to  that  alone.  Their  character,  their  long 
inherited  warlike  spirit,  was  what  chiefly  evoked 
praise  in  this  war.  It  is  rightly  expressed  by  Professor 
Nitobe  in  his  "  Bushido : "  "  It  has  been  said  that 
Japan  owed  her  success  in  her  last  war  with  China 
to  Murata  rifles  and  Krupp  guns,  to  her  adoption  of 
modern  systems  of  education — but  those  are  only 
half-truths.  The  most  perfect  guns  and  cannon  do 
not  shoot  of  themselves.  The  modern  system  of 
education  does  not  make  a  hero  out  of  a  coward. 
No!  What  won  the  battles  on  the  Yalu,  in  Korea 
and  in  Manchuria  were  the  spirits  of  our  ancestors 
who  guided  our  hands  and  who  were  enthroned  in 
our  hearts.     They  are   not  dead,  the  spirits  of  our 


warlike  forefathers.  For  those  who  have  eyes  to  see, 
they  are  clearly  visible. " 

On  March  19th  China  sent  its  celebrated  diplomatist, 
Li-Hung-Tschang,  with  his  son  to  Japan.  The 
negociations  for  peace  took  place  in  Shimonoseki  (or 
Bakan).  Japan  was  represented  by  the  Prime  Minister, 
It5  Hirobumi,  and  Mutsu  Munemitsu,  Minister  of 
Foreign  affairs.     Peace  was  concluded  on  April  17th. 

The  terms  of  the  Peace  of  Shimonoseki  were  as 
follows : 

1.  China   recognised   the   absolute   independence   of 


2.  The  following  places  were  to  be  ceded  to  Japan. 

a.  The  Lian-Tung  peninsula. 

b.  The  island   of  Formosa    (or   Taiwan)  and  the 
small  islands  thereto  belonging. 

c.  The  island  of  Hokoto. 

3.  China    to   pay   Japan    a   war   indemnity   of    two 

hundred  million  taels. 

4.  China  to  open  to  Japanese  trade  in  addition  to 

the  places  already  accessible  Schaschi  in  Hupet, 
Tschung-King  in  Szet-schnan,  Sutschou  in 
Kiangsu  and  Hang-tschow  in  Tschekiang. 

5.  As  guarantee  for  the  execution   of  the  Treaty, 

China  to  cede  the  fortress  of  Wei-hai-wei  to 
Japan  which  was  to  be  evacuated  by  Japan  after 
payment  of  the  indemnity  and  fulfilment  of  all 
the  other  conditions. 

But  Russia  objected  to  these  terms.  She  saw 
obstacles   to   her   own   plans   in   the  cession  of  the 


peninsula  of  Lian-tung  to  Japan.  She  had  already 
thoughts  of  acquiring  Port  Arthur  for  her  maritime 
operations.  Russia  was  supported  at  Tokio  by 
German  and  French  diplomacy.  Those  powers 
founded  their  objection  on  the  fact  that  the  garrison  of 
Lian-tung  by  Japan  would  threaten  peace  in  the  far 
east.  There  was  nothing  left  for  Japan  except  to  yield, 
and  full  of  bitter  anger  she  saw  herself  deprived  of  the 
reward  for  which  she  had  so  bravely  fought  and 
which  she  so  well  deserved.  Ito  Hirobumi  was 
forced  to  sign  the  treaty  on  November  8th,  1895, 
giving  up  Lian-tung  to  China  for  an  increase  of  the 
war  indemnity  by  30  million  taels. 

The  germ  of  the  Russo-Japanese  war  lay  in  this 
treaty.  For  Japan  had  no  idea  of  permanently 
submitting  to  Russia's  desire  of  expansion,  and 
waited  for  the  time  when  she  could  meet  that  great 
power  on  terms  of  military  equality. 

The  possession  of  the  island  of  Formosa  caused 
some  fighting.  The  Chinese  population  of  Formosa 
rebelled  under  the  leadership  of  the  Chinese  Su- 
Yung-Fu,  the  well-known  head  of  the  "  Black  Flag," 
a  party  in  China  which  had  made  so  stubborn  a 
resistance  to  the  invasion  of  Cochin  China  by  the 
French.  Japan  sent  a  large  army  to  Formosa  under 
the  command  of  Prince  Kitashirakawa-no-miya 
The  rebellion  was  entirely  put  down  by  the  middle  of 



As  we  have  seen,  the  first  commercial  treaties  were 
concluded  by  the  Shogunate  government  in  1858. 
At  a  period  of  domestic  unrest,  and  of  a  weak  foreign 
policy,  it  had  granted  great  advantages  to 
foreign  powers  at  the  expense  of  the  Japanese 
Empire.  The  duty  which  Japan  laid  on  foreign  im- 
ports was  very  low.  It  was,  moreover,  especially 
derogatory  and  offensive  to  Japan  that  all  foreigners 
were  subject  not  to  the  Japanese  courts  of  justice 
but  to  special  consular  courts  of  their  own.  Japan  in 
that  matter  was  treated  like  an  uncivilized  nation, 
and  the  circumstance  often  led  to  great  injustice. 
The  treaties  of  1858  were  made  worse  for  Japan 
in  the  following  years,  for  numerous  attacks  were 
made  on  the  foreigners,  and  in  compensation  Japan 
had  to  make  further  concessions  to  the  foreign  powers. 
It  was  natural  that  the  advancement  of  civilization  in 
the  Japanese  nation  should  cause  a  demand  for  the 
revision  of  the  existing  treaties. 

In  1878,  Terajima  Munenori,  minister  for  foreign 
affairs,  had  approached  England  with  a  proposal  of 


revision,  which  England  refused.  In  1882  Japan 
renewed  her  proposals,  and  entered  into  negotiations 
with  all  the  foreign  powers  who  showed  themselves 
willing  to  make  a  few  concessions.  England  pro- 
posed to  abolish  the  consular  courts,  and  to  establish 
mixed  courts,  formed  of  both  Japanese  and  foreign 
judges.  But  the  announcement  of  these  proposals 
raised  a  storm  of  opposition  among  the  Japanese 
people.  Okuma  Shigenobu,  the  foreign  minister  who 
desired  to  accede  to  the  English  compromise  of 
mixed  courts  was  violently  attacked,  and  in  1889  lost 
his  right  leg  through  a  bomb  thrown  by  a  patriot. 
The  negociations  therefore  fell  through. 

It  was  not  till  August  27th,  1894,  due  to  the 
impression  produced  by  the  glorious  successes  of  the 
Japanese  arms  in  China,  that  the  foreign  minister, 
Mutsu  Munemitsu  was  able  to  conclude  a  new 
commercial  treaty  with  England  which  fulfilled  the 
Japanese  requirements.  Treaties  with  the  other 
powers  on  a  similar  basis  were  soon  concluded ;  with 
Germany,  April  4th,  1896. 

These  commercial  treaties  abolished  the  consular 
courts,  introduced  a  higher  protection  tariff  for  Japan, 
opened  the  whole  country  to  foreigners,  and  set  some 
new  ports  free  for  trade  with  foreign  powers.  But 
the  qualification  still  held  that  foreigners  might  only 
acquire  a  small  amount  of  landed  property,  a  qualifica- 
tion that  was  not  removed  until  1910. 



The  war  between  Japan  and  China  made  the 
Eastern  question  and  Eastern  affairs  a  focus  of 
interest  in  Europe,  and  in  the  policy  of  the  Great 
Powers.  Russia,  in  particular,  was  making  every 
effort  to  secure  a  firm  position  on  the  coasts  of 
Eastern  Asia.  With  a  vast  expenditure  of  strength 
she  completed  the  Trans-Siberian  railway.  But  the 
other  Great  Powers  also  tried  to  secure  influence 
in  the  far  east.  In  November,  1897,  Germany 
occupied  the  port  of  Kiau-Tshou,  on  the  south  coast 
of  the  peninsula  of  Shantung,  in  order  to  have  a  foot- 
ing for  her  fleet,  and  on  March  6th,  1898,  made  an 
agreement  with  the  Chinese  government  by  which  the 
Bay  of  Kiau-Tshou  with  the  adjacent  territory  was 
leased  to  the  German  Empire  for  99  years.  During 
this  time  Russia  had  also  been  negociating  with  the 
Chinese  government,  and  on  March  27th,  1898,  con- 
cluded with  China  a  deed  of  conveyance  for  25  years 
for  the  south-west  portion  of  the  peninsula  of  Lian- 
tung  with  Port  Arthur.  The  treaty  also  allowed 
Russia  to  continue  the  Trans-Siberian  railway  through 


Manchuria  to  Niu-Tschwang  and  the  ports  of  Port 
Arthur  and  Ta-lien-wan  (Dairen).  On  April  2nd, 
1898,  England  received  Wei-hai-wei  on  condition 
that  she  would  cede  it  to  China  when  Port  Arthur 
again  became  Chinese.  England  took  possession  of 
the  port  and  the  islands  belonging  to  it  and  about 
460  square  miles  of  the  adjacent  mainland.  France 
would  not  be  left  out,  and  in  the  same  month  and 
year  obtained  a  deed  of  conveyance  for  99  years  for 
the  Bay  of  Kwan-tshou  on  the  coast  of  the  province 
of  Canton.  The  next  year  she  received  in  addition 
the  island  of  Tung-shan  and  some  smaller  islands. 
She  acquired  in  all  about  521  square  miles. 

These  great  sacrifices  to  which  China  had  to  consent 
roused  in  the  nation  great  indignation  which  was 
directed  against  all  foreigners.  The  imperial  family 
did  nothing  to  suppress  the  movement,  indeed,  it 
rather  assisted  in  stirring  up  hatred  of  the  foreigner. 
The  exasperation  was  keenest  in  the  north,  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Tientsin  and  Peking.  That  district 
was  the  seat  of  the  so-called  Boxer  rebellion  of 

A  plot  was  made  against  the  foreigners,  the 
purpose  of  which  was  a  rebellion.  The  members 
of  the  conspiracy  called  themselves  Giwadan,  i.e. 
peace  and  patriotic  union.  The  league  began 
public  action  at  the  commencement  of  1900.  Many 
foreigners,  among  them  Japanese,  soon  fell  victims. 
The  native  Christians  were  cruelly  persecuted.  The 
rebels  destroyed  the  railways  in  every  direction.  In 
May  the  German  Ambassador  and  a  secretary  of  the 


Japanese  embassy  were  murdered.  The  embassies  of 
the  Foreign  Powers  at  Peking  were  besieged.  The 
English  admiral,  Sir  Edward  Seymour,  marched  to 
their  assistance  with  an  army  composed  of  European, 
American  and  Japanese  troops,  but  had  to  turn  back 
without  doing  anything,  (ioth-26th  June).  TheChinese 
government  secretly  supported  the  rebels.  They 
openly  opposed  the  foreign  auxiliary  troops,  e.g.  at 
the  defence  of  the  fort  of  Taku  and  of  Tientsin.  The 
Japanese  played  an  important  part  in  the  storming, 
of  the  fort  of  Taku  (June  17th)  by  the  foreign  powers 
and  in  the  righting  at  Tientsin  (July  14th).  Japan 
sent  the  5th  division  under  the  command  of  Lieu- 
tenant-General Yamaguchi  to  the  seat  of  war,  6th 
July.  The  timely  release  of  the  embassies  shut  up 
in  Peking  is  mainly  due  to  the  speedy  intervention  of 
this  large  contingent  of  Japanese  troops  (15th  August.) 

By  the  peace  signed  on  December  22nd,  1901, 
China  had  to  pay  the  Foreign  Powers  400,000,000 
taels  war  indemnity. 

The  importance  of  this  outbreak  against  the 
foreigners  was  that  it  afforded  Russia  an  opportunity 
to  secure  a  firm  military  footing  in  Manchuria.  She 
had  been  striving  with  all  her  force  to  carry  out  the 
construction  of  the  Manchurian  railway,  had  made 
expensive  military  settlements,  and  under  pretext  of 
protecting  the  railway  from  Chinese  attacks,  had 
located  there  200,000  men.  Thus  Manchuria,  and 
also  the  much  disputed  peninsula  of  Liantung,  were 
entirely  under  the  military  power  of  Russia.  Russia 
had  reaped  advantages  to  herself  out  of  this  to  her  not 


unwelcome  rebellion  as  she  had  out  of  the  Chino- 
Japanese  war.  But  Japan  stood  in  the  way  of  the 
further  execution  of  her  plan  of  securing  a  great 
position  in  the  far  east. 



The  tension  between  Russia  and  Japan  had  existed 
ever  since  Russia's  interference  in  the  conditions  of 
the  Peace  of  Shimonoseki  between  Japan  and  China. 
The  Japanese  had  to  look  on  while  Russia  appro- 
priated the  booty  for  which  they  had  so  bravely 
fought.  Japan  had  followed  with  great  anxiety  the 
expansion  of  the  Russian  power  during  the  Boxer 
rebellion.  It  was  to  be  feared  that  Korea,  where 
already  so  much  Japanese  blood  had  been  spilled  and 
with  which  Japan  was  so  closely  bound  through  its 
history,  would  fall  a  prey  to  the  Russian  lust  of 
conquest.  The  question,  in  whose  possession  that 
district  was  to  be  in  the  future,  was  one  of  life  and 
death  to  Japan.  If  Russia  became  lord  of  the  Sea 
of  Japan,  then  Japan  must  for  ever  abandon  the  hope 
of  winning  a  position  of  equality  among  the  great 

Japan  now  came  to  an  understanding  with  England 
who  looked  on  at  the  Russian  expansion  with  great 
misgiving.  In  February,  1902,  the  two  powers  con- 
cluded a  treaty  in  which  they  bound  themselves  to 


stand  together  for  the  independence  of  China  and 
Korea.  The  treaty  further  stipulated  that  if  either  of 
the  powers  was  attacked  by  two  great  powers  the 
other  should  come  to  its  assistance  with  all  its  military 
forces.  It  was  hoped  by  this  means  to  frighten 
Russia  from  making  further  encroachments. 

Supported  by  her  powerful  ally,  the  Japanese 
government  entered  into  negociations  with  Russia. 
It  demanded  the  withdrawal  of  the  troops  from  Man- 
churia. But  Russia  had  not  the  smallest  intention  of 
abandoning  the  further  prosecution  of  her  policy ;  she 
sought  to  delay  the  negociations  as  long  as  possible 
in  order  to  strengthen  and  reinforce  her  troops  in  Man- 
churia. The  counter-proposals  delivered  at  last  on 
October  3rd,  1903,  resembled  a  challenge.  The  es- 
sential points  were:  both  powers  to  maintain  the 
independence  and  integrity  of  Korea ;  Russia  would 
recognise  Japan's  interests  in  Korea.  Japan  must 
undertake  to  place  no  fortifications  on  the  Korean 
road,  and  must  acknowledge  that  Manchuria  lay  out- 
side its  sphere  of  interest.  The  position  Russia 
would  hold  with  regard  to  Manchuria  was  not  men- 

That  Russia  should  have  staked  so  much  on  her 
enterprises  in  the  far  east  and  that  she  should  seek  to 
bring  about  so  dangerous  a  war  is  easily  understood. 
Great  interests  for  the  empire  of  the  Czar  were  here 
at  stake.  The  success  of  her  plans  in  the  far  east 
meant  an  enormous  increase  of  power  for  Russia. 
The  acquisition  of  Manchuria  with  excellent  ports 
both  for  war  and  commerce  which  were  already  partly 


provided  with  expensive  works,  and  the  railway  con- 
nected with  the  European  continent  would  have  made 
Russia  the  strongest  power  in  the  east.  The  mastery 
of  the  Eastern  Sea  would  have  given  her  the  prospect 
of  enormous  economic  profit.  It  would  have  meant 
only  one  road  for  trade  from  the  Manchurian  trading 
ports  on  the  Yellow  Sea  to  the  Eastern  Sea.  Her 
great  Asiatic  possessions  would  have  been  objects  of 
immense  value.  Just  as  for  Japan  this  question  was 
one  of  life  and  death,  on  it  depended  for  Russia  her 
future  position  in  the  world.  The  value  of  such  ad- 
vantages for  the  political  power  and  economic  life  of 
the  empire  of  the  Czar  made  it  worth  while  to  venture 
on  a  dangerous  war. 

Even  after  the  unacceptable  proposals  made  by 
Russia  on  October  3rd,  the  Japanese  government 
continued  the  negociations,  but  as  was  to  be  expected 
without  success.  On  February  6th,  1904,  a  final  note 
was  sent  to  the  government  at  St.  Petersburg,  break- 
ing off  the  negociations,  and  declaring  that  Japan 
would  now  proceed  as  was  necessary  for  the  protec- 
tion of  her  threatened  position,  and  the  safety  of 
her  rights  and  interests.  Kurino,  the  Japanese  am- 
bassador at  St.  Petersburg,  was  recalled  on  February 
8th.  The  official  declaration  of  war  followed  on 
February  10th. 

The  Japanese  fleet  had  already  on  February  6th, 
sailed  under  the  command  of  Vice-Admiral  Togo 
Heihachiro  from  the  port  of  Sasebo  to  the  south-west 
coast  of  Korea.  Arrived  there,  Rear-Admiral  Uriu 
separated  from  it  with  a  division  of  cruisers  in  order 


to  take  possession  of  Tschemulpo  where  two  Russian 
ships  were  lying-.  The  chief  division  under  Togo 
went  on  to  Port  Arthur. 

The  greater  part  of  the  Port  Arthur  Russian  fleet 
lay  in  the  outer  roadstead,  for  the  inner  harbour  was 
not  sufficiently  ready.  It  did  not  expect  to  be  at- 
tacked and  had  taken  no  precautions.  In  the  nights 
8th  to  9th  February,  the  Japanese  made  a  successful 
torpedo  attack  by  which  two  big  Russian  ironclads 
and  a  cruiser  were  damaged. 

Rear-Admiral  Uriu  was  also  successful  at 
Tschemulpo.  In  the  night  8th  to  9th  February  he 
secretly  landed  two  regiments  in  the  neighbourhood 
of  the  port  which  marched  immediately  to  the  capital, 
Seoul.  The  next  day  he  forced  the  Russian  cruisers 
to  a  fight,  and  they  fled  back  into  the  harbour.  The 
Russian  commander  sank  both  ships.  The  Japanese 
took  possession  of  Tschemulpo  where  it  was  intended 
to  land  the  first  Japanese  army. 

Admiral  Togo  tried  to  blockade  the  harbour  of  Port 
Arthur  by  sinking  old  steamships,  bombarded  it, 
made  torpedo  attacks  on  it,  and  laid  mines.  But 
these  attempts  did  not  bring  the  desired  result.  The 
Russian  admiral  Stark  was  recalled,  and  Admiral 
Makarov  appointed  Commander-in-chief  at  Port 
Arthur.  On  the  morning  of  April  13th  there  was  a 
fight  between  Russian  and  Japanese  torpedo  boats. 
Admiral  Makarov  sent  out  the  whole  of  his  fleet. 
But  when  he  eame  in  sight  of  the  Japanese  fleet 
drawn  up  for  the  attack,  and  recognised  their 
superiority,   he    gave    the    order    to    retreat.       His 


flagship  Petropavlovsk  struck  a  mine,  and  im- 
mediately sank.  Makarov  and  all  his  crew  were 
killed.  A  second  ironclad  was  also  considerably 
damaged  by  a  mine  during  the  retreat.  Later  Togo 
succeeded  in  completely  blockading  the  harbour. 

In  February  the  Russian  cruisers  lying  at 
Vladivostock  sailed  over  to  the  coast  of  Japan  and 
destroyed  a  Japanese  merchant  vessel.  In  return 
Admiral  Kamimura  went  over  to  Vladivostock  with 
some  cruisers,  and  bombarded  it  on  March  6th.  Not 
much  was  thereby  gained,  and  he  soon  departed.  In 
the  further  course  of  the  war  Vladivostock  played  no 
essential  part. 

Immediately  after  the  victory  at  Tschemulpo  the 
1 2th  division  embarked  at  Nagasaki  and  on  February 
17th  landed  at  Tschemulpo,  and  at  once  marched  to 
Seoul.  The  Emperor  of  Korea  made  an  alliance 
with  the  Japanese  and  granted  them  the  right  of 
making  what  use  they  pleased  of  Korea  so  long  as 
the  war  lasted.  More  troops  were  landed  at 
Tschemulpo  and  at  Tshinampo,  situated  to  the 
north  of  Tschemulpo.  By  the  end  of  April  the 
Japanese  had  three  divisions  on  the  Yalu,  the  river 
dividing  Korea  from  Manchuria.  They  formed  the 
first  Japanese  army.  General  Kuroki  was  in 

On  February  20th,  Kuropatkin,  formerly  minister 
of  war,  took  over  the  command  of  the  Russian 
troops.  He  arrived  on  March  27th,  at  Liau-yang, 
the  head-quarters  of  the  Russian  army  in  Manchuria. 
General  Stossel  was  governor  of  Port  Arthur. 


The  Russians,  as  the  Japanese  had  been  doing, 
pushed  on  troops  to  the  Yalu.  There,  on  the 
morning  of  May  1st,  a  fierce  battle  was  fought  which 
ended  in  the  defeat  and  retreat  of  the  Russians. 
Their  losses  were:  30  officers  and  581  men  killed; 
31  officers  and  1,022  men  wounded;  2  officers 
and  524  men  taken  prisoner  by  the  Japanese.  The 
Japanese  losses  were  :  5  officers  and  180  men  killed  ; 
25  officers  and  690  men  wounded.  Military  supplies, 
21  cannon  and  8  machine  guns  fell  into  the  hands 
of  the  victors. 

The  first  victory  over  a  well  equipped  modern 
European  army  in  the  open  field  raised  the  courage 
of  the  Japanese. 

Soon  after  the  battle  of  the  Yalu,  Japanese  troops 
were  landed  at  Pi-Asje-wo,  a  short  distance  from 
Port  Arthur.  On  May  5th  the  1st,  3rd  and  4th 
divisions,  and  the  1st  field  artillery  brigade  disem- 
barked there.  Their  aim  was  to  act  in  concert  with 
the  Japanese  fleet  against  Port  Arthur.  The  Russians 
had  assembled  about  27,000  men  in  the  town  of  Kin- 
Tshou  for  the  protection  of  Port  Arthur.  The 
Japanese  directed  a  fierce  artillery  fire  against  it, 
stormed  it  on  May  25th  and  took  it  after  severe 
fighting.  Sixty-eight  cannon  and  10  machine  guns 
came  into  their  possession.  The  Russians  retired  in  the 
direction  of  Port  Arthur.  On  May  28th  the  Japanese 
pushed  forward  a  division  to  the  hill  of  Hou-na-kwan- 
ling,  and  therefore  General  Stossel  retreated  to  Port 

By  the  Czar's  orders  Kuropatkin  sent  a  division  of 



the  Manchurian  army  to  the  assistance  of  the  hard 
pressed  fortress.  To  prevent  it  joining  with  the 
garrison  of  Port  Arthur,  the  Japanese  sent  the  4th 
division,  the  first  field  artillery  brigade,  and  later  the 
3rd  division  under  the  command  of  General  Oku, 
by  forced  marches  to  the  north.  They  came  up  with 
the  Russian  auxiliary  force  at  Toku-ri-ji.  A  fierce 
battle  ensued  in  which  the  Japanese  were  again  the 
victors.  The  Russians  suffered  great  losses  and 
retreated  to  the  chief  army  at  Liau-yang.  General 
Oku  went  after  them  in  hot  pursuit.  Since  their 
departure  from  Kin-Tshou,  his  troops  formed  the 
second  Japanese  army  which  henceforth  acted  in- 
dependently against  the  Manchurian  army. 

The  troops  that  had  remained  at  Port  Arthur 
under  General  Nogi  which  now  formed  the  third 
Japanese  army,  consisted  of  the  1st  and  1  ith  divisions, 
and  was  soon  augmented  by  the  9th  division,  the  1st 
and  4th  reserve  brigade,  the  2nd  field  artillery 
brigade  and  a  regiment  of  heavy  artillery.  At  the 
end  of  June  they-  concentrated  their  energy  on  the 
siege  of  Port  Arthur. 

A  fourth  Japanese  army  was  formed  of  the  rest  of 
the  troops  that  had  left  their  native  land,  under  the 
command  of  General  Nozu.  Immediately  on  landing 
at  Ta-ko-shan,  it  marched  north  and  took  part  in  the 
operations  against  the  Manchurian  army  which 
continued  to  hold  the  defensive  at  Liau-yang.  Field- 
Marshal  Oyama  was  commander-in-chief  of  the  three 
united  Japanese  armies. 

The  three  armies  (I,  II,  IV,)  began  the  attack  on 


Liau-yang  from  different  sides  on  August  30th.  The 
victory  was  again  to  the  Japanese.  General 
Kuropatkin  saved  the  greater  part  of  his  army  by 
a  cautious  retreat  for  which  he  deserves  every  praise. 
The  Japanese  marched  into  Liau-yang  on  September 
7th.  The  number  of  killed  and  wounded  on  the 
Russian  side  was  1 6,000,  on  the  Japanese  17,000.  The 
latter  gained  a  large  amount  of  booty. 

The  Russians  had  retreated  in  the  direction  of 
Mukden,  and  took  up  a  position  to  the  south  of  the 
river  Hun-ho.  The  Japanese  pursued  them  and 
intrenched  themselves  opposite  in  the  plain  of  San-ho. 
A  battle  was  begun  on  October  9th  which  lasted 
until  October  18th.  After  a  terrible  struggle,  Oyama 
and  his  three  armies  were  victorious.  The  Rus- 
sians lost  800  officers  and  45,000  men,  and  the 
Japanese  had  15,878  killed  and  wounded  together. 
After  this  great  defeat  the  Russians  retreated  to 

Meanwhile  the  third  Japanese  army  was  spending 
all  its  strength  on  the  siege  of  Port  Arthur.  At  the 
first  general  attack  on  August  19th,  the  western  fort, 
Banriu,  was  taken,  at  the  second  on  September  19th, 
the  forts  of  Stossel  and  Kuropatkin  fell  into  their 
hands,  and  the  third,  on  October  26th,  gave  them  the 
fort,  Keikan-San,  on.  the  east. 

Their  bold  proceedings  at  Port  Arthur  led  to  great 
losses  on  the  Japanese  side.  But  they  could  not 
avoid  the  sacrifice.  For,  as  we  shall  see,  Russia's 
Atlantic  fleet  was  on  the  way,  and  everything 
depended    on   the   taking  of  Port  Arthur  before  its 


arrival,  so  that  the  Japanese  sea-power  should  have 
the  upper  hand. 

Admiral  Togo  encouraged  the  land  forces  to  do 
their  utmost. 

After  the  third  general  attack,  the  Japanese 
succeeded  in  gaining  possession  of  a  hill  about  600 
feet  high,  whence  the  Russian  ships  that  lay  in  the 
admirable  harbour  safe  from  Japanese  attacks,  could 
be  carefully  watched.  The  Japanese  brought  up 
heavy  artillery  behind  the  hill,  and  shooting  under 
cover,  on  November  30th,  destroyed  the  whole  of  the 
Russian  Port  Arthur  fleet. 

The  fourth  general  attack  was  made  on  December 
26th  when  some  important  forts  were  taken.  These 
successes  of  the  Japanese  forced  General  Stossel  to 
capitulate.  In  recognition  of  their  courage,  the 
victors  allowed  the  Russian  officers  to  keep  their 
swords,  and  to  return  to  their  native  land. 

The  fortress  was  surrendered  on  January  1st,  1905. 
The  Japanese  came  into  possession  of  641  prisoners, 
528  cannon,  206,734  artillery  shells,  36,598  rifles, 
5,450,240  bullets,  etc.  But  these  great  military  stores 
counted  little  beside  the  importance  of  the  possession 
of  the  harbour  for  the  further  prosecution  of  the  naval 
war  which  through  the  despatch  of  Russia's  Atlantic 
fleet  to  the  seat  of  war,  entered  on  a  new  phase. 

After  the  battle  in  the  plain  of  San-ho,  the  opposing 
forces  consisted  of  300,000  Russians  and  260,000 
Japanese.  The  Japanese  were  reinforced  by  the 
third  army  which  after  the  taking  of  Port  Arthur 
marched  north  against  the  Manchurian  army.     The 


four  Japanese  armies  united  on  March  1st,  1905,  in 
storming  Mukden.  The  battle,  which  is  one  of  the 
most  splendid  in  the  world's  history,  lasted  for  10 
days,  and  was  fought  on  both  sides  with  unexampled 
self-sacrifice  and  stubbornness.  120,000  Russians 
fell  in  the  fight,  and  40,000  were  taken  prisoner.  The 
Japanese  who  fell  numbered  41,222.  On  March  10th, 
the  Japanese  marched  into  Mukden  in  triumph. 

The  greater  part  of  the  Russian  Atlantic  fleet 
under  command  of  Admiral  Rovjestensky  left 
Libau  on  October  12th,  1904,  for  the  seat  of  war  in 
order  to  go  to  the  assistance  of  Port  Arthur.  The 
capture  of  the  fortress  and  the  destruction  of  the  fleet 
here  struck  a  severe  blow  at  this  maritime  enterprise, 
but  did  not  decide  its  fate.  It  was  possible  for  the 
Russian  squadron  to  destroy  the  Japanese  fleet  which 
equalled  theirs  in  number,  or  at  least  to  reach 
Vladiwostok  and  thence  to  conduct  surprise  attacks 
on  the  Japanese  coast,  and  endanger  the  transports  of 
Japan  on  their  way  to  the  seat  of  war. 

Part  of  the  Russian  fleet  took  the  route  round  the 
Cape  of  Good  Hope,  and  another  part  that  through 
the  Mediterranean.  At  the  request  of  Admiral 
Rovjestensky,  the  Czar  despatched  the  rest  of  the 
Atlantic  fleet  on  February  5th,  and  it  took  the 
shorter  Mediterranean  route.  The  Russian  squadrons 
met  off  the  coast  of  Annan,  and  proceeded  together 
to  the  north.  The  Japanese  fleet  had  secretly  taken 
up  its  position  in  the  straits  of  Korea.  Vladivostok 
could  be  reached  by  three  routes  :  through  the  straits 
of  Korea,  through  the  straits  of  Tsugaru  between  the 


islands  of  Honto  and  Ezo,  and  through  the  straits  of 
Soya,  between  the  islands  of  Ezo  and  Saghalien.  It 
was  impossible  for  the  Japanese  navy  to  defend  all 
three  straits  at  one  time,  for  they  would  not  when 
divided  have  been  equal  to  the  Russian  fleet.  Togo 
reckoned  that  the  enemy,  through  the  strictest  secrecy 
regarding  the  Japanese  position,  would  take  the 
nearest  route  through  the  straits  of  Korea.  His 
assumption  was  correct.  The  Russians  had  no 
knowledge  of  the  whereabouts  of  the  Japanese  fleet, 
and  proceeded  up  the  straits  of  Korea. 

At  5  a.m.  in  the  morning  of  May  27th,  one  of  the 
guardships  posted  in  the  south,  sent  the  following 
message  to  Admiral  Togo  by  wireless  telegraphy  : 
u  The  enemy's  squadron  has  been  sighted  at  point 
No.  203.  The  enemy  is  apparently  steering  towards 
the  eastern  passage."  Between  10  and  11  o'clock  the 
cruiser  squadron  under  Vice-Admiral  Kataoka,  the 
division  under  Rear-Admiral  Togo  Masaji,  and 
the  division  under  Rear-Admiral  Dewa  came  into 
touch  with  the  enemy  between  the  islands  of  Iki 
and  Tsushoma.  They  did  not  answer  their  fire 
and  contented  themselves  by  telegraphing  every 
moment  all  details  of  the  enemy's  position  to 
Admiral  T5go.  Thus  Togo  knew  before  he  came 
in  sight  of  the  enemy's  fleet  that  its  fighting  line 
consisted  of  the  whole  strength  of  the  second  and 
third  Atlantic  squadron  which  were  accompanied  by 
about  seven  special  service  ships,  that  the  ships  were 
formed  in  two  fore  and  aft  lines,  that  the  chief  strength 
was  at  the  head  of  the  right  line  and  the  service  ships 


were  at  the  end,  and  that  the  whole  armada  was  steer- 
ing north-east  at  a  speed  of  about  1 2  knots.  Togo  could 
now  make  plans  in  accordance,  and  give  his  orders. 
The  battle  was  begun  at  2  o'clock  by  the  Japanese, 
near  Okinoshima.  Togo  signalled  to  all  ships  in 
sight  the  following  message  :  "  The  existence  of  the 
Empire  depends  on  this  battle.  Japan  expects  this 
day  the  courage  and  energy  of  every  officer  and  every 
man  in  the  fleet."  Togd  with  the  chief  strength,  the 
Dewa  and  Uriu  divisions,  went  against  the  head  of 
the  left  column  ;  the  cruiser  squadron  and  the  Togo 
(Masaji)  squadron  steered  south  and  attacked  the 
enemy  in  the  rear.  The  Russian  fleet  fell  into  dis- 
order, the  two  columns  came  to  blows,  and  sought  in 
vain  to  free  themselves  and  escape  from  the  net  pre- 
pared for  them  by  the  Japanese.  The  battle  lasted 
till  sunset.  At  20  minutes  past  seven  Togo  ordered 
his  fleet  to  assemble  at  the  island  of  Ullong.  The 
issue  of  the  fight  was  decidedly  favourable  to  the 
Japanese.  A  large  number  of  the  finest  Russian 
ships  were  sunk,  the  rest  were  almost  without  excep- 
tion badly  damaged.  The  Japanese  suffered  no  losses. 
In  the  night  the  destroyers  and  torpedo  boats  began 
to  be  active,  and  showed  great  boldness ;  some  of 
them  approached  so  close  to  the  Russian  ships  that 
the  later  could  not  shoot  at  them.  The  Japanese  did 
an  enormous  amount  of  damage,  but  themselves  only 
lost  3  torpedo-vessels.  The  next  morning  (May  28th) 
the  Japanese  fleet  with  its  whole  strength  continued 
the  work  of  destruction.  At  half-past  10  the  Russian 
fleet  was  entirely  surrounded  at  a  point  18  nautical 


miles  south  of  Takenoshima.  Soon  after  the  Japanese 
opened  fire,  Rear-Admiral  Nebugatov  declared  the 
surrender  of  the  4  ships  under  his  command.  The 
battle  against  the  rest  continued  until  noon.  Then  the 
destroyer  Bjedovie,  on  board  which  was  Admiral 
Rovjestensky  and  his  staff,  hoisted  the  white  flag. 
Of  the  whole  Russian  fleet  which  had  consisted  of  38 
ships,  only  two  returned  to  Vladivostok.  Of  the 
rest,  23  were  sunk,  7  were  captured  and  6  disarmed  at 
Shanghai.  The  Japanese  lost  only  the  3  torpedo- 

This  brilliant  and  remarkable  naval  victory1  sig- 
nified not  only  the*  end  of  the  Russian  fleet,  but  also 
the  end  of  the  severe  and  momentous  struggle. 

In  spite  of  her  heavy  losses  and  of  the  revolution 
that  had  taken  place  at  home  during  the  war,  the 
great  Russian  empire  was  not  by  a  long  way  at  the 
end  of  her  power.  It  was  not  difficult  for  Russia 
quickly  to  reinforce  and  increase  her  Manchurian 
army,  and  in  spite  of  the  defeats  she  had  suffered,  to 
make  a  successful  stand  against  victorious  but 
exhausted  Japan.  But  the  terrible  impression  of  the 
last  Japanese  naval  victory  deprived  Russia  of 
courage  to  prosecute  the  war  farther  and  inclined  her 
to  consider  proposals  for  peace. 

Soon  after  the  naval  battle  in  the  Sea  of  Japan, 
Mr.  Roosevelt,  President  of  the  United  States,  on 
June  9th,  1905,  invited  Japan  and  Russia  to  negociate 

1  Called  in  Japan  "  Naval  battle  in  the  Sea  of  Japan,"  in 
Europe  "  the  battle  of  Tsushima." 


conditions  of  peace.  The  proposal  was  accepted  by 
both  nations.  Japan  appointed  as  her  pleni- 
potentiaries Ko-Mura  Jutard,  minister  for  foreign 
affairs,  and  Takahira  Kogoro,  her  ambassador  to 
the  United  States.  Russia  sent  Witte  a  former 
minister  of  finance,  and  Rosen,  formerly  ambassador 
to  Japan,  to  the  peace  conference.  The  plenipo- 
tentiaries met  at  Portsmouth,  Maine,  in  the  United 
States,  on  August  9th,  1905,  and  after  11  meetings 
peace  was  signed  on  August  29th. 

The  most  important  articles  of  the  Peace  of 
Portsmouth  are  : 

Russia  recognises  that  from  the  political,  military 
and  administrative  standpoints,  Japan's  interests  in 
Korea  are  supreme,  and  undertakes  not  to  oppose 
the  measures  of  government,  protection  and  control 
which  Japan  deems  necessary  in  agreement  with  the 
Korean  government  to  take  (Art  2). 

Both  powers  shall  withdraw  their  troops  from 
Manchuria  which  is  to  remain  Chinese  (Art.  3). 

The  Russian  rights  of  rental  of  Port  Arthur,  Ta- 
lien,  and  the  abutting  land  and  sea  to  be  surrendered 
entirely  to  Japan  (Art  4). 

The  Manchurian  railway  to  be  divided  between 
Russia  and  Japan  at  Kuang-Tscheng-Tse.  Both 
divisions  to  be  used  only  in  the  interests  of  trade  and 
industry  ;  Russia  keeps  all  the  rights  acquired  for  the 
construction  of  the  railway  through  her  stipulations 
with  China  (Art.  6). 

Russia  and  Japan  are  bound  to  join  their  roads  at 
Kuang-Tscheng-Tse  (Art.  7). 



Russia  relinquishes  the  southern  part  of  Saghalien 
to  the  50th  degree  of  latitude  to  Japan  (Art.  8). 

The  Japanese  nation  regarded  the  peace,  con- 
sidering their  achievement,  as  extremely  unfavourable. 
They  were  especially  disappointed  at  the  lack  of  any 
war  indemnity.  The  angry  excitement  in  Tokio  rose 
so  high  that  the  police  buildings  were  burnt  down. 

But  although  the  peace  was  a  disappointment  to 
the  victorious  nation,  it  meant  a  great  extension  of 
Japanese  power  and  influence.  The  Japanese 
gained  a  territory  for  their  civilization  and  their 
economic  activities  measuring  two-thirds  of  the 
extent  of  their  empire  hitherto.  A  stream  of 
Japanese  emigrants  at  once  poured  into  the  new 
territory;  by  May  1910  there  were  157,000  Japanese 
in  Korea.  Immediately  after  the  conclusion  of 
peace,  Japan  appointed  a  Resident-General  to 
govern  the  country,  and  he  ruled  it  actually  his  own 
way,  though  formally  in  the  name  of  the  Emperor  of 
Korea.  Attempts  on  the  part  of  Korea  to  restore 
the  independence  of  the  empire  were  unsuccessful 
and  at  the  moment  of  concluding  this  history,1  the 
Japanese  can,  by  the  treaty  concluded  with  Russia 
in  June,  19 10,  incorporate  the  Korean  empire  with 
their  own  without  any  opposition  from  the  Powers. 

1  August  29,  1 9 10. 


Abe  Masahiro,  178,  179 

Abe-no-Hirafu,  the  general,  41 

Abe-no-Nakamaro,  the  scholar,  49 

Abe-no-Yoritoki,  67 

Abe  Tadaaki,  165 

Achiki,  21 

Achino-mi,  21 

Adams,  William,  157 

Aga-no-gawa,  the  river,  197 

Ainus,  the,  I,  2,  12,  13,  41,  51 

Aizu,  town  of,  141,  197 

Akamatsu  family,  the  112 

Akamatsu  Norimura,  97,   102,  103 

Akechi  Mitsuhide,  132 

Akitsuki,  210 

Alexander  the  Great,  31 

Amako  family,   122 

Amakusa,  island  of,  162,  163 

Amakuwa  (Makao),  157 

Amaterasu-Omikami,  temple  of,  147 

Amaterasu-Omikami,  the  Sun- 
goddess,  7,  8,  26 

Ancestor-worship,  27 

Ando  Nobumasa,  183 

Anegawa,  the,  130 

Annan,  157,  245 

Antoku-Tenno,  81st  Emperor,  79, 
80,  81 

Aoka  Todasuke,  170 

Arai  Hakuseki,  169 

Arima,  157 

Arisugawa  -  no  -  miya  Taruhito, 
prince,  194,  195,  196,  211 

Asan  (Gazan),  223,  224 

Asakura  family,  the,  130 

Asai  family,  the,  130 

Ashikaga  family,  the,  97,  116,  118, 
120,  125,  129,  131 

Ashikaga  Takauji,  98,  102,  103, 
104,  105,  106 

Ashikaga  Yoshiaki,  119,  130,  131 

As:hikaga  Yoshiharu,  119 

Ashikaga  Yoshihide,  119 

Ashikaga  Yoshitane,  119 
Atlantic  Ocean,  158 
Atsuchi,  castle  of,  133 
Awa,  province  of,  121 

Bakan,  fort  of,  185 

Bakan  straits,  185 

Balz,  1 

Bathu,  91 

Benkei,  87 

Biwa,  lake  of,  42 

Boxer  rebellion,  233,  234,  236 

Buddhism,  25,  26,  27,  28,  29,  31, 

48,  53.  93,  94,  125,  131,  132, 

Bushido,  151,   152,   153,   154,  203, 


Cape  of  Good  Hope,  157,  245 

Chamberlain,  I 

Chang-an,  capital  of  Chinese 
Empire,  51 

Chikamatsu  Monzaimon,  the 
dramatist,  166 

China,  18,  23,  30,  31,  33,  41,  42, 
45,  46,  49,  53,  65,  91,  117, 
124,  125,  126,  137,  138,  139, 
1^9,  209,  211,  220,  221,  223, 
227,  228,  229,  232,  233,  236, 

Chinese,  language  of  the,  2 
Chin-han  (Shinkan),  17 
Chosen  (or  Chosun)  dynasty,  124 
Chosun  (Ch5sen),  state  of,  17 
Chosokabe  Motochika,  122,  135 
Chuai-Tenno,  14th  Emperor,  16 
Chukio-Tenno,  85th  Emperor,  89, 

Cochin  China,  229 
Confucius,  bible  of,  21 
Confucius,  teaching  of,  165,  166 



Daigagu-ji,  temple  of,  97 
Daigo-Tenno,    60th   Emperor,    59, 

60,  64,  65 
Dan-no-ura  Sea,  81 
Date  Masamune,  122,  158 
Dewa,  province  of,  167 
Dokid,  Buddhist  priest,  48,  49 
Doncho  of  Korea,  Buddhist  priest, 

.  32 
Dsingiskhan,  91 
Dutch,  the,  156,  157,  164,  171,  176 

Echigo,  province  of,  121,  197 

Edo,  141 

Emishi,  85 

England,  179,  182,  230,  231,  233, 

Enomoto  Takeaki,  198 
Enriakuji,  temple  of,  73,  130 
Eskimos,  the,  2 
Eto  Shimpei,  208,  209 
Ezo  (Hokkaido),  island  of,  1,  176, 

177,  179,  198,  205,  246 

Finns,  language  of  the,  2 
Formosa  (Taiwan),   137,  159,  160, 

209,  228,  229 
France,  182,  233 

Fujiwara  family,  the  43,  52,  57,  58, 
59,  61,  63,  64,  65,  67,  71,  72, 
73,76,86,89,93,  in,  135,188 
Fujiwara  Fubito,  44 
Fujiwara  Hidesato,  63 
Fujiwara  Ietaka,  the  poet,  93 
Fujiwara  Kanera,  the  poet,  117 
Fujiwara  Michinaga,  64,  65 
Fujiwara  Narichika,  78 
Fujiwara  Nobuzane,  the  painter,  95 
Fujiwara  Shunzei,  the  poet,  93 
Fujiwara  Sumitomo,  62,  63 
Fujiwara  Tadahira,  62 
Fujiwara  Takaie,  66 
Fujiwara  Teika,  the  poet,  93 
Fushimi-Tenno,  92nd  Emperor,  96 
Fushimi,  town  of,  135 
Fusan,  port  of,  219 

GemmiS-Tenno,  the  Empress  (43rd 
Emperor),  47,  51 

Genkai  Sea,  17 

Gensan,  219 

Gensho,  the  Empress  (44th 
Emperor),  47,  48 

Germany,  232 

Go-Daigo-Tenno,  96th  Emperor, 
97,  98,  101,  102,  103,  104, 
105,  106 

Go-Fukakusa-Tenno,  89th  Emper- 
or, 96,  97 

Go-Fushimi-  Tenno,  93rd  Emperor, 

Go-Horikawa-Tenno,  73rd  Emper- 
or, 90 

Go-Kameyama-Tenno,  99th  Emper- 
or, 106 

Go  ■  Kashiwahara  -  Tenno,  104th 
Emperor,  118,  120 

Go-Komatsu-Tenno,  100th  Emper- 
or, 106 

Go-Mitsunoo-Tenno,  108th  Emper- 
or, 149 

Go-Murakami-Tenno,  97th  Emper- 
or, 105 

Go-Nara-Tenn5,  105th  Emperor, 
118,  120 

Go-Reizei-Tenno,  67 

Goriokaku,  fortress  of,  198 

Go-Saga-Tenno,  88th  Emperor,  96 

Go-Shirakawa-Tenno,  77th 

Emperor,  75,  77,  78,  80 

Go-Sunjo-Tenno,     71st     Emperor, 


Go-Toba-Tenno,     82nd    Emperor, 

80,  85,  89,  90,  93 
Go-Tsuchimikado-Tenno,         103rd 

Emperor,  118,  120 
Go-Uda-Tenno,  91st  Emperor,  92, 

Goto  Yujo,  117 
Gregorian  calendar,  introduction  of, 


Hagi,  210 

Hai-yang,  island  of,  224 



Hakata,  bay  of,  91 

Hakodate,  180 

Hakone,  mountains  of,  102 

Hamada  Yahei,  159 

Ham-gyung,  138 

Han  (Kan),  17 

Hang-tschou,  228 

Hara,  fortress  of,  163 

Harakiri,  152,  154,  197 

Harris  Kam,  180 

Hasekura  Tsunenaga,  158 

Hataka,  town  of,  126 

Hatakeyama  family,  the  no,  113, 


Hayashi  Daigaku-no-kami,  166 

Hayashi  Doshun,  165 

Hayasui,  straits  of,  9 

Heguri,  27 

Heiankio,  51 

Heijei-Tenno,  51st  Emperor,  51,  52 

Hekiteikan,  138 

Hidachi,  province  of,  62,  63,  1 70 

Hidetada,  145,  149 

Hidetata,  162 

Hidetsugu,  137 

Hideyori,  146 

Hieda-no-Ares,  48 

Hiei,  hill  of,  102,  104 

Hiei,  temple  of,  53 

Higashiyama-Tenno,  113th 

Emperor,  170 

Hikohohodemi-no-Mikoto,  grand- 
father of  the  1st  Emperor,  8 

Hiogo  (Kobe),  103,  180,  199 

Hirata  Atsutane,  174 

Hirato,  island  of,  126,  157 

Hiroshima,  224 

Hishikawa  Moronobu,  the  painter, 


Hiuga,  province  of,  8 

H6j5  family,  the,  87,  89,  98,  121, 

Hojo  Soun  (or  Ise  Naganji),  121 
Hojo  Takatoki,  97,  98 
Hojo  Tokimasa,  77,  79,  88 
Hoj5  Tokimune,  91,  92,  96 
HOjo  Tokiyuki,  102 
Hojo  Yasutoki,  90 
Hojo  Yoshitoki,  88,  89,  90 
Hoki,  province  of,  98 

Hokoto,  228 

Holland,  179,  182,  198 

Honen-Shonin,  Buddhist  priest,  94 

Hou-na-kwanling,  241 

Honnoji,  fortress  of,  132 

Honto,  island  of,  7,  246 

Hoodo,  royal  temple  of,  66 

Horigoe,  115 

Horiuji,  temple  of,  31,  32 

Hosokawa  family,  the  no 

Hosokawa  Katsumoto,  112 

Hosokawa  Masamoto,  118 

Hosokawa  Yoriyuki,  109 

Hotta  Masahiro,  180,  181 

Hun-ho,  the  liver,  243 

Hupet,  228 

Hwa-Yen  (Ka-en-ko),  225 

Iemitsu,  147,  148,  162 
Ieharu,  172 
Ienari,  172,  173 
Iesada,  179 
Ieshige,  172 
Ietsugu,  170 
Ieyasu,  169,  170 
Ieyoshi,  178 
Ii  Naosuke,  181,  182 
Iki,  island  of,  66 
Ikoma,  mountain  of,  9 
Imagawa  family,  the,  140 
Imagawa  Yoshimoto,  1 29 
India,  31,  137,  157 
Indian  Ocean,  157 
Ino-Chukei,  177 

Insignia  of  the  Japanese  Empire,  8 
Iruka,  35 

Ise,  province  of,  14 
Ise  Naganji  (or  Hojo  Soun),  115 
Ishida  Mitsunari,  141,  142 
Itagaki  Taisuke,  208 
Itakura  Shigemasa,  the  general,  163 
ItO  Hirobumi,  215,  221,  228,  229 
Ito  Yuko,  224 
Ito  Jinsai,  166 
Iwai,  25 

Iwakura  Tomomi,  208 
Iwasa  Matabei,  the  painter,  167 
Izanagi-no-Mikot5,  the  god,  7 
Izanami-no-Mikoto,  the  goddess,  7 



Izu,  province  of,  77,  79,  115,  HI, 

Izumo,  province  of,  7 

Java,  157 

Jesuits,  the,  100,  161,  162,  i7i, 

Jido-Tenno,  the  Empress  (41st  Em- 
peror), 48 

Ji-mio-in,  97 

Jimmu-Tenn5,  1st  Emperor,  8,  9, 

Jingii-Kogo,  wife  of  the  14th  Em- 
peror, 16,  17,  18,  27 

Jocho,  66 

Jodo-Shu,  Buddhist  sect,  94 

Joei  Year,  90 

Joshin,  the  tribe,  66 

Josten,  Jan,  157 

Junnin,  47th  Emperor,  47 

Juntoku-Tenno,  84th  Emperor,  89, 


Kada  Azumamaro,  171,  174 
Kagoshima,  126,  211,  212 
Kai,  province  of,  13,  121,  170 
Kaipmg,  fortress  of,  225 
Kakino  -  moto  -  no  -  Hitomaro,  the 

song-writer,  50 
Kamakura,   81,   85,    86,   97,    101, 

102,  106,  110,  113,   114,  IJ5, 

Kameyana-Tenn5,   90th   Emperor, 

Kamimura,  Admiral,  240 
Kami-worship,  26 
Kammu,  50th  Emperor,  51 
Kamogawa,  the  river,  73 
Kamo  Mabuchi,  174 
Kanagawa  (Yokohama),  180 
Kaneiji,  temple  of,  196 
Kano-Masanobu,  the  painter,  117 
Kano  Tanniu,  the  painter,  167 
Kanto,  plain  of,  13,  81,  101,  121, 

135,  140,  170 
Karak  or  Mimana,  state  of,  11,  16, 

17,  24,  25 
Kataoka,  vice-admiral,  246 

Katsushika  Hokusai,  the   painter, 

Kato  Kiyomasa,  138,  139 
Katsuragi,  27 

Kawachi,  province  of,  21,  98 
Kazusa,  province  of,  13,  121 
Keichu,  Buddhist  priest,  166 
Keiko-Tenno,   12th   Emperor,   12, 

Keitai-Tenno,  26th  Emperor,  3,  24 

Keita,  the  Emperor,  27 

Kemmu  year,  101 

Kenzo-Tenno,  23rd  Emperor,  24 

Khubitai-khan,  91,  92 

Kiangsu,  228 

Kiau-Tshou,  port  of,  232 

Kibi-no-Makibi,  the  scholar,  49 

Kibi-no-Tasa,  24 

Kido  Takayoshi,  188,  208 

Kii,  province  of,  9,  170,  182 

Ki-ja,  Chinese  prince,  16 

Kimmei-Tenno,  29th  Emperor, 

Kino  Haseo,  60 

Ki-no-Oyumi,  general  under  the 
21st  Emperor,  24 

Kin-Tshou,  241,  242 

Kino  Tsurayuki,  60,  65 

Kioto,  51,  61,  62,  73,  85,  102,  103, 
106,  109,  113,  116,  126,  130, 
132,  135,  Mi,  147,  149,  161, 
173,  175,  181,  184,  186,  199, 

Kirino  Toshiaki,  major-general, 

Kitamura  Kigin,  166 

Kitashirakawa  -  no  -  miya,  prince, 

Kin-lien-cheng  (Kiu-ren-jo),  fort- 
ress of,  225 

Kiusiu,  island  of,  8,  12,  18,  45, 
103,  122,  125,  135,  138,  177 

Kiyowara  Takehira,    the    general, 

Kizuki,  village  of,  7 
Kobayakawa  Takakage,  138 
Koga  Kubo,  the,  114,  121 
Kofukuji,  temple  of,  73 
Kobun-TennS,  39th  Emperor,  43 



Koganei,  Professor,  1 

Kogioku  -  Tenno,  (Saimei  -  Tenno) 
35th  Emperor,  35,  41,  42 

Kogon-Tenno,  97,  98,  103 

Ko-gu-ryu  or  Koma,  16,  17,  18,  24, 
25,  41,  42 

Kojiki,  the,  ancient  Japanese 
Chronicle,  2,  3,  47,  174 

Koka,  island  of,  219 

Kokaku-Tenno,  119th  Emperor, 

Koken  the  Empress,  (46th  Em- 
peror), 47,  48,  49 

Koko-Tenno,  58th  Emperor,  58 

Komio-kogo,  wife  of  Shomu-Tenno 

Komio-Tenno,  Emperor  of  the 
northern  dynasty,  103 

Ko-Mura  Jutaro,  249 

Kongobuji,  temple  of,  53 

Konin,  49th  Emperor,  47,  51 

Konishi  Yoshinaga,  138 

Kono  Moronao,  105 

Konoe-Tenno,  76th  Emperor,  74 

Korea,  2,  11,  16,  18,  21,  24,  25, 
41,  42,  45,  91,  124,  125,  137, 
138,  139.  156,  169,  208,  218, 
219,  220,  221,  222,  224,  225, 
227,  228,  236,  237,  238,  240, 
245,  246,  249,  250 

Koreans,  the,  2,  18,  21 

Korpogurus,  the,  a  race  of  dwarfs,  2 

Kose  Kanaoka,  the  painter,  60 

Kotoku-Tenno,  36th  Emperor,  39, 

4i,  44 
Koza,  temple  of,  72 
Kozuke,  province  of,  97,  121 
Kuang-Tscheng-Tse,  249 
Kiikai,  Buddhist  priest,  53,  65 
Kumano,  temple  of,  72 
Kumamoto,  town  of,  210,  211,  212 
Kuma-no-Ura,  9 
Kumaso,  race  of,  12,  16 
Kurile  islands,  218 
Kurino,    Japanese   Ambassador  at 

St.  Petersburg,  238 
Kuropatkin,  240,  241,  243 
Kusuko,  wife  of  Heijei-Tenno,  52 
Kusunoki  Masashige,  97,  98,  103, 

104,  105 

Kusunoki  Masatsura,  104,  105 
Kwan-tshou,  bay  of,  233 

Lian-tung  peninsula,  225,  226,  228, 

229,  232,  234 
Liau-ho  (Rioka),  227 
Liau-yang,  240,  242,  243 
Liegnitz,  91 
Li-Hung-Tschang,  221,  228 


Maeda  Toshiie,  141 

Ma-han  (Bakan),  17 

Makarov,  admiral,  239,  240 

Mamiya  straits,  177 

Manchuria,  66,  177,  225,  233,  234, 

237,  240,  249 
Manchurians,  the,  2 
Mangkan,  King  of  the  Mongols,  91 
Marco  Polo,  the  Venetian  traveller, 

Maruyama  Okio,  the  painter,  173 
Masatomo,  114,  115 
Masuda  Tokisada,  162,  163 
Matsudaira    Katamori,    prince    of 

Aizu,  186,  193,   194,   195,  196, 

Matsudaira  Nobutsuna,  163,  165 
Matsudaira  Sadanobu,  172,  173 
Matsunaga  family,  the,  130 
Matsunaga  Hisahide,  119 
Matsuo  Basho,  the  song-writer,  166 
Mediterranean,  the,  245 
Mexico  (Nova  Hispania),  157 
Michinoomi  -  no  -  Mikoto,   general 

under  the  1st  Emperor,  9 
Michizane,  59,  60 
Mido,  temple  of,  65 
Mikawa,  province  of,  140 
Minamoto,  the,  63,  67,  73,  77,  79, 

81,  85,  86,  88,  89,  93,  140,  145 
Minamoto  Tsune-moto,  63 
Minamoto  Yoritomo,    79,    80,    81, 

85,  86  ,  87,  88,  188 
Minamoto  Yoshinaka,  80,  8 1 
Minamoto  Yoshitomo,  74,  76,  77 
Ming,   Chinese    dynasty    of,    124, 

Mmo,  province  of,  130 



Mishihase  or  Makkatsu,  41 

Mito,  166,  182,  188 

Miya,  169 

Miyako,  198 

Miyako-no-Yoshika,  the  scholar,  52 

Miyoshi  Chokei,  119 

Miyoshi  family,  the,  130 

Miyoshi  Kiyoyuki,  the  scholar,  60 

Mizuno  Tadakuni,  178 

Mochiuji,  113,  114 

Mommu,  42nd  Emperor,  44,  47 

Mongolia,  91,  124 

Mongolian  nations,  languages  of,  2 

Mononobe  family,  the,  34 

Mononobe  -  no  -  Arakahi,     general 

under  the  Emperor  Keitai,  25 
Monotobu,  the  painter,  117 
Mori  family,  the,  122,  130,  133 
Mori  Motonari,  122 
Morinaga,  prince,  101,  102 
Moriya,    son    of    Mononobe-no- 

Okoshi,  28 
Motoori  Norinaga,  174 
Mototsune,  58,  59 
Mukden,  243,  245 
Murakami-Tenno,  62nd  Emperor, 

Murasaki-Shikibu,  65 
Muro  Kiiiso,  171 
Musashi,  province  of,  12 1 
Mutsu,  chief  town  of  the  Ainus,  13 
Mutsu,  province  of,  67,  73,  87,  122, 

Mutsuhito,    present     Emperor     of 

Japan,  188,  199 
Mutsu  Munemitsu,  228,  231 


Nagasaki,  147,  164,  171,  176,  177, 

178,  180,  205,  209,  219 
Nagasunehiko,  rebel  in  the  reign 

of  the  1st  Emperor,  9 
Nagato  (Choshu),  184 
Nagato,  prince  of,  186,  187,  188, 

198,  193,  194,  195,  202 
Nagoya,  port  of,  138 
Nakae  Toju,  166 
Nakano-oe-Oji,     name     of     38th 

Emperor  before  his  accession, 

35,  39>  41.  42 

Nakatomi-no-Kamatari,    originator 
of  the  fall  of  the  Soga  family, 

35,  39,  42,  44,  57 
Naniwa  (Osaka),  9,  28,  45 
Naniwa,  palace  at,  22 
Naohito,  prince,  170 
Nara,  47,  49,  5 1,  93,  147 
Narinaga,  prince,  101 
Nawa  Nagatoshi,  97,  98 
Nebugatov,  rear-admiral,  248 
Nichiren-Shonin,   Buddhist   priest, 


Nichiren-Shu,  Buddhist  sect,  94 
Nigihayahi-no-Mikoto,    relative   of 

the  1st  Emperor,  9 
Nihonshoki,   or    Nihongi,    ancient 

Japanese  Chronicle,  2,  3,  16, 

18,  21,  48 
Niiagata,  180 
Nikko,  147 
Ninigi-no-Mikoto,      grandson      of 

Amaterasu-Omikami,  8 
Ninnaji-no-miya  Yoshiaki,   Prince, 

Nintoku-Tenno,  16th  Emperor,  22 
Nitta  family,  the  97 
Nitta  Yoshishada,  97,  102,  103 
Niu-tschwang,  227,  233 
Nobuatsu,  165 
Nobunaga,  130,  131,  132,  133,  134, 

Nobuyori,  76 
Nogi,  general,  242 
Norinaga,  prince,  101 
Noriyori,  88 
Nozu,     lieutenant  -  general,     224, 

227,  242. 

Oama,  prince,  43 
Oda  family,  the  123,  129,  130,  134 
Oda  Nobuhide,  129 
Oda  Nobunaga,  120,  123,  129,  16 1 
Odawara,  stronghold  of  the   Hojo 

family,  135 
Ogata  Korin,  the  painter,  167 
Ogimachi-Tenno,    106th  Emperor, 

118,  130 
Ogiu  Sorai,  171 
Oiwa,   son  of  the  general,  Ki-no- 

Oyumi,  24 



Ojin-Tenno,  15th  Emperor,  18,  21 

Okehazama,  battle  of,  130 

Oki,  island  of,  97,  98 

Okinoshima,  247 

Okitomo,  172 

Oku,  general,  242 

Okubo  Toshimichi,  188,  208 

Okuma  Shigenobu,  231 

Okuninushi-no-Mikoto,  7 

Omi,  province  of,  13,  131 

Omi-no-Mifune,  the  scholar,  52. 

O-Muraji,  or  Mononobe-no-Okoshi, 
27,  28 

Omura,  157 

Onin  years,  113,  120 

Ono  Harunaga,  145 

Ono-no-Takamura,  the  scholar,  52 

O  no-Yasumaro,  47,  48 

Ono-no-Yoshifuru,  63 

O-omi,  or  Soga-no-Iname,  27,  28 

Osaka,  port  of,  135,  141,  146,  147, 
167,  194,  195,  205 

Osakabe,  prince,  44 

Oshikochi  Mitsune,  the  song-writer, 

Osumi,  province  of,  12 

Ota  Dokan,  117 

Otomo,  157 

Otomo  family,  the  122 

Otomo-no-Kanamura,  the  chan- 
cellor, 24 

Otori  Keisuke,  196,  197 

Ouchi  family,  the  122,  125 

Ouchi  Yoshioki,  119 

Ouchi  Yoshitaka,  122 

Owari,  or  Atsuta,  province  of,  13, 
14,  T23,  129 

Oyama  Iwao,  field -marshal,  225, 
242,  243 

Oyumi  Kubo,  the,  121 

Pacific  Ocean,  157,  158 

Pak-je  or  Kudara,  16,   17,   18,  31, 

23,  24,  25,  41,  42 
Tak-je,  King  of,  27 
Paul  V.  (Pope),  122 
Peking,  91,  220,  233 
Perry,  admiral,  178,  179,  189 
Pfhung-do  (Hoto),  island  of,  223 

Philip  II.  of  Spain,  158 
Philip  III.  (of  Spain),  122 
Phillippines,  the,  137,  157 
Phon  han  (Benkan),  17 
Phyong-Yang    (Heijo),    capital    of 

Chosun,  17,  138,  224 
Pi-Asje  wo,  241 
Port  Arthur  (Rio-jun-Ko),  225,  229, 

232,  233,  239,  241,  242,  243, 

244,  245,  249 
Portsmouth,  Peace  of,  249 
Portugese,  the,  126,  156 
Postsan-han  (Kan),  17 
Prussia,  182 
Pyon-chin,  17 

Rai  Sanyo,  the  historian,  175 

Reizei-Tenno,  63rd  Emperor,  64 

Richardson,  185 

Rihaku,  Chinese  writer,  49 

Ri-Ki,  King  of  Korea,  219 

Rinoji-no-miya,  Prince,  196 

Riiikiu,  island  of,  205 

Riukiu,  King  of,  156 

Riuzoji  family,  122 

Rokuhara-Tandai,  90 

Rome,  158 

Roosevelt,  Mr.,  248 

Rosen,  249 

Rovjestvensky,  admiral,  245,  248 

Russia,  91,  176,  179,  182,  228,  229, 

232,  234,  236,  237,  238,  243, 

244,  248,  249 

Sadatoki,  96,  97 
Saga  district,  the  209 
Sagami,  province  of,  13,  85,  121, 

Saga-Tenno,  52nd  Emperor,  52 
Saghalien,  177,  218,  246,  250 
Saich5,  Buddhist  priest,  53 
Saigio,    Buddhist  priest  and   poet, 

93.  94 
Saigo  Kirino,  212 
Saigo  Takamori,  general,  188,  208, 

209,  210,  211 
Saito  family,  the,  130 
Sakai,  147 



Saka-noae-no-Tamuramaro,     the 

general,  51 
Samurai,  the,  86,  oj,  105,  121,  148, 

I5i»  153.  154.  170,  I73»  182, 

184,  201,  204,  205,  207,  208, 

209,  210,  211 
Sanetomo,  88 
San-ho,  plain  of,  243,  244 
Sanuki,  province  of,  75,  81 
Sasebo,  port  of,  238 
Sashiura,  village  of,  62 
Sassa  Norimasa,  135 
Satsuma,  prince  of,  201 
Satsuma,  126,  170,  185,  186,  187, 

188,  194,  195,  202,  208 
Schiroyama,  212 
Schuschi,  228 

Seimei-6,  King  of  Pak-je,  25 
Seishonagon,  66 
Seiso,  Emperor  of  China,  125 
Seiwa-Tenno,  56th  Emperor,  58 
Sekigahara,  plain  of,  141 
Sendai,  town  of,  122 
Senjimon,  the  poem,  21 
Seonghwan  (Sei-kan),  223 
Seoul,  138,  220,  222,  223,  224,  239 
Sesshu,  the  painter,  117 
Seto,  inland  sea  of,  9,  62 
Settsu,  province  of,  45 
Seymour,  Sir  Edward,  234 
Shanghai,  206 
Shantung,  225,  226,  232 
Shiba  family,  the  no,  113,  129 
Shibata  Katsuie,  134 
Shiga,  town  of,  42 
Shigemori,  79 
Shigeuji,  114 
Shijonawate,  field  of,  105 
Shikoku,  island  of,  75,  122,  170 
Shimabara,  peninsula  of,  163 
Shimatsu  family,  the  122 
Shimatsu  Saburo,  185 
Shimatsu  Yoshihisa,  135 
Shimoda,  179,  180 
Shimonoseki    (Bakan),    Peace  of, 

228,  236 
Shimosa,  province  of,  62,  63,  114, 

121,  196 
Shimozuke,   province  of,  49,   121, 


Shinano,  province  of,  13,  80 
Shingonshu,  the,  Buddhist  sect,  53, 

.  94. 
Shinikei,  138 

Shinowara  Kunimoto,  211,  212 
Shinran-Shonin,     Buddhist    priest, 

.  94 
Shinsai,  76 
Shintoism,  27,  175 
Shionoritsuhiko-no-Mikoto,    leader 
of  the  army  under  Sujin-Tenno, 
Shirakawa,  197 
Shirakawa-Tenno,   72nd   Emperor, 

,  72,  73>  74 
Shi-sen,  battle  of,  139 
Shishi-ga-dani,  village  of,  78 
Shitennoji,  temple  of,  31 
Shizugadake,  battle  of,  134 
Shomu,  45th  Emperor,  47,  48,  49 
Shotoku,  son  of  the  33rd  Emperor, 

3°>  31  >  34,  35 
Shotoku,  48th  Emperor,  47 
Shugensho,  Chinese  family,  124 
Shugo,  no 

Shunkan,  the  priest,  78 
Siam,  158 
Siberia,  176 
Silesia,  91 
Sil-la,  or  Shiraki,  state  of,  II,  16, 

17,  24,  41,  42 
Sil-la,  king  of,  25 
Skikoku,  island  of,  135 
Sobin,  39 

Soga  family,  the  27,  29,  34,  3$,  36 
Sbng-hwan,  224 
Soshokun,  138 
South  America,  158 
Soya,  straits  of,  246 
Spain,  158 

Spaniards,  the,  126,  156,  176 
Stark,  admiral,  239 
Stossel,  240,  241,  243,  244 
Sugawara  family,  the  59 
Sugawara  Michizane,  65 
Sugawara,  the  scholar,  60 
Suiko-Tenno  (the   Empress),   33rd 

Emperor,  3,  25,  30,  47 
Suinin-Tenno,  nth  Emperor,  14 



Sujin-Tenno,  10th  Emperor,  II,  17 
Sumpu,  147 
Suo,  province  of,  126 
Suruga,  province  of,  13,  158 
Susa-noo-no-Mikoto,  the  god,  7 
Sushun,  the  Emperor,  30 
Sutoku-Tenno,  75th  Emperor,  74 
Sutschou,  228 
Su-Yung-Fu,  229 
Suzaku-Tenno,  6 1st  Emperor,  62 
Szet-schnan,  228 

Tabaruzaka,  battle  of,  211 
Tachibanahime,  princess,  13 
Taidong,  the  river,  224 
Taiho  year,  44 
Taika  reforms,  39,  57,  87 
Taira  family,  the,  63,  67,  73,  76,  77, 

78,  79,  80,  81,  86,  89,  93,  129 
Taira  Kiyomori,  74,  76,  77,  78,  79, 

80,  81 
Taira  Masakado,  62,  63 
Taira  Sadamori,  63 
Tai-Won-Kun,  219,  220 
Takahira  Kogoro,  249 
Takakura-Tenno,    80th    Emperor, 

Takamuko-no-Kuromaro,  39 
Takamatsu,  fortress  of,  131,  133 
Takamori,  212 
Takano  Choei,  177 
Takeda  family,  the,  131 
Takeda  Shingen,  121,  130 
Takenoshima,  248 
Takeuchi  family,  the,  27 
Takeuchi-no-Sukune,     minister     of 

Jingu-Kogo,  16 
Takeuchi  Skikibu,  175,  176 
Takigawa  Katsumasu,  134 
Taku,  fort  of,  234 
Takuma  Tamenari,  the  painter,  66 
Talien-wan  (Dairen),  port  of,  233, 

Tamagawa,  the  river,  167 
Taneda,  major-general,  210 
Tanegashina,  island  of,  126 
Tani  Motoki,  major-general,  211 
Tankei,  the  carver,  95 
Tanuma  Okitsugu,  172 
Teiseiko,  159 

Temmu-Tenno,  40th  Emperor,  48 
Tendai,  the,  Buddhist  sect,  53,  94 
Tenji-Tenno,  38th  Emperor,  42,  43, 

44,  57 
Tenshu,  fortress  of,  131 
Terajima  Munenori,  230 
Tibetans,  language  of  the,  2 
Tien-tschwang-tai      (Den-sho-dai), 

Tientsin,  221,  222,  223,  224 
Ting,  admiral,  226 
Toba-Tenno,  74th  Emperor,  74 
Todaiji,  temple  of,  49 
Togo,  223 
Togo    Heihachiro,     vice  -  admiral, 

238,  239,  240 
Togo   Masaji,   Rear-Admiral,   246, 

Togukawa   family,    the    140,    149, 

152,  182 
Togukawa  Iesato,  196 
Tokugawa  leyasu,    130,    134,    135, 

140,  141,  142,   145,  146,  147, 

148,  156,  157,  162,  165 
Togukawa    Yoshinobu,    182,    188, 

194.  195,  196 
Toho,  Chinese  writer,  49 
Tokihira,  60 
T5kio,  141,  145,  157,  201,  205,  206, 

211,  224,  229,  250 
Tokiyori,  90 
Toku-ri-ji,  242 
Toneri,  prince,  48 
To-no-mine,  temple  of,  43 
* ',  Torikaebaya  -  monogatari, "     the 

satire,  66 
Tosa,  188,  193,  194,  195,  202 
Tosa  Mitsunaga,  the  painter,  95 
Tosa  Mitsuoki,  the  painter,  167 
Tosa,  prince  of,  199 
Toyotomi    family,    the,    141,    142, 

Toyotomi  Hideyoshi,  the  general, 

I3i»  132,  133,  134,  135,  136, 

137,  138,  139,  140,    141,  156, 

Trans-Siberian  railway,  232 
Tschekiang,  228 
Tschemulpo,   219,  220,  223,   239, 




Tsching,   Manchurian  dynasty  of, 


Tschung-King,  228 

Tshinampo,  240 

Tsuboi,  Professor,  of  Tokio,  2 

Tsuchikumo,  people  of,  10 

Tsugaru,  straits  of,  245 

Tsukushi,  province  of,  17,  45,  67 

Tsunayoshi,  165 

Tsushima,  island  of,  66,  156 

Tung-shan,  island  of,  233 

Turks,  language  of  the,  2 

Uda-Tenno,  59th  Emperor,  58,  59 
Uesugi  family,  the  114 
Uesugi  Kagekatsu,  141,  142 
Uesugi  Kenshin,  121 
Uesugi  Noritada,  114 
Uesugi  Norizane,  113,  114 
Ugayafukiaezu-no-Mikoto,      father 

of  the  1st  Emperor,  8 
Uji  family,  the,  33 
Uji,  town  of,  65,  66 
Uji-no-Wakairatsuko,    son    of    the 

15th  Emperor,  21,  22 
Ujitsuna,  121 
Ujiyasu,  121 
Ukida  Hideie,  138 
Ullong,  island  of,  247 
Ulsan,  mountain  of,  139 
Umako,  chancellor  of  the  Emperor 

Sushun,  30,  34 
Umako,  son  of  Soga-no-Iuame,  28 
Unebi,  mountain  of,  10 
United  States,  178,  180,  1S1,  219, 

Unkei,  the  carver,  95 
Uraga,  178,  179 
Uriu,  rear-admiral,  238,  239 

Vladivostock,  240,  245,  248 


Wake-no-Kiyomaro,  49 
Wani,  21 

Watanabe  Kazan,  177 
Wei-hai-wei,  fortress  of,  226,  233 
Witte,  249 

Xavier,  Francesco,  122,  126,  161 

Yalu,  the  river,  225,  227,  240,  241 
Yamabe-no-Akahito,      the      song- 
writer, 50 
Yamada,  town  of,  147 
Yamada  Nagamasa,  158,  159 
Yamagata  Aritomo,   field -marshal, 

224,  227 
Yamagata  Daini,  175 
Yamaguchi  (or  Little   Kioto)   122, 

125,  126 
Yamaguchi,       lieutenant  -  general, 

Yamaji,  lieutenant  -  general,  225 
Yamana  Sozen,   the  general,  112, 

Yamana  Ujikiyo  family,  the  109 
Yamato,  province  of,  9,  21,  J04 
Yamatota-kern-no-Mikoto,    son    of 

the  1 2th  Emperor,  12,  13,  14 
Yamazaki,  battle  of,  133 
Yang-tse-Kiang,  159 
Yedo,  145,  147,  148,  156,  157,  167, 

170,  173.  175,  176,  180,  184, 

185,  195,  196,  201 
Yellow  Sea,  the,  224,  238 
Yen-Tschuan,  222 
Yi-yu-Song  (Rijiosho),  138 
Yodo,  the  river,  167 
Yokohama,  206 
Yonekichi  Miyake,  Professor,  3 
Yorii,  88 
Yorimichi,  65 
Yoshifusa,  wife  of  Montoku-Tenno, 

56th  Emperor,  57 
Yoshigumi,  119 
Yoshimune,  170,  171,  172,  173 
Yoshimasa,  113,  114,  116 
Yoshimitsu,  106,  109,  1 10,  125 
Yoshimochi,  no 
Yoshino,  village  of,  104 
Yoshiteru,  119 
Yoshitsune,  77,  79.  81,  87 
Yozei-Tenno,  57th  Emperor,  58 
Yuriaku-Tenno,  21st  Emperor,  22, 


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